Demographic transition took place in Spain much later than in most other western European countries. The conjunction of a rise in life expectancy and a decline in fertility rates since the 1980s initiated a gradual ageing process. However, the substantial immigration flow that has taken place since the end of the 1990s has slowed this trend down, and has become a new factor affecting Spain's demographic evolution. This aging and immigration have become inseparable processes.
In this piece of research, the presence of foreign women is investigated in a central area of the Italian Adriatic, the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the Abruzzo region. It is an urban territory with around 300,000 inhabitants, in which women exceed 50% of the total number of foreigners and migratory flows started late compared with the rest of the country. The research seems to indicate the existence of an Adriatic model of women's migration, which can be considered as a sub-type of the Mediterranean model. The Adriatic model is characterized by a greater presence of women coming from the former Soviet Block and former Yugoslavia countries, with a high level of education and a high inclination to arrive and stay on their own, free from partners and children. The presence of foreign women is influenced by global and geopolitical changes that have come into existence in the last ten years. It is especially motivated by economic reasons; however, the search for autonomy and independence is not a factor that can be ignored. The women have on average important professional experience, but they carry out domestic assistance jobs. They are mainly single women, who have left their partners and children in their country of origin. They belong, therefore, to those trans-national families to whom they contribute with their remittances. Their standard of living is not high, due to their low incomes and necessity to save.
Accession to the European Union and the subsequent free movement of labor in a more open labor market became a factor which promoted mobility among the residents of the EU's new member states. Latvia is one of the 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe which joined the EU on May 1, 2004. Migration in Latvia has become a topic of economic, political and social importance. The aim of this paper is to analyze the Latvian labor migration processes that have unfolded since the EU enlargement in 2004. Results from the survey showed that substantial numbers of residents have emigrated. In Latvia economic and temporary aspects of migration continue to dominate. Another important issue today is the growing demand for labor and the possible negative effect on economic development.
In developing countries, the impact of migration on elderly care is often perceived to be negative, as young adults who migrate for labor or other reasons leave their elderly parents behind in backward villages. We argue that such a loss-of-care effect can be compensated by the income transferred from the migrant children to their elderly parents. Based on the 2004 General Social Survey in China (CGSS04), we studied both the effect of migration on income transfer to the elderly and the impact of migration on the overall wellbeing of the elderly in rural areas. Regression results show a strong enhancing effect of interprovincial migration on the income transfer to the elderly, increasing both the odds of a significant transfer by 67% and the overall amount by nearly 30%. The elderly in households with interprovincial migrant children were found more likely to be satisfied economically than those in households without any migrant children. The difference between the overall satisfaction of the two household types was found to be very little, however, indicating that the negative and positive effects of temporary migration were more or less balanced. The policy implication is that the overall wellbeing of the elderly in backward regions, especially in migration-sending areas, can be greatly improved if elderly care is community-based.
This paper considers the phenomenon of the increasing female marriage immigrants to rural areas and small and medium size towns in South Korea and Japan. The focus of our comparative analysis is to find the common patterns of international inflow migration in the two East Asian countries. Both countries have similar economic, social and cultural backgrounds; for instance, the widening income gap between rural areas and urban areas, and the decreasing fertility rate as a result of the accelerated economic development process in both countries are supposed to be the main causes of international marriage migration. In the second section, the current status of international marriage migration in South Korea and Japan is described. Female immigration to Japan from Asian countries began to appear in mid 1980s, while in South Korea marriage migrants became apparent in the mid 1990s. The regional patterns of marriage migrants in each country show a similar tendency to marry men from rural areas and small and medium size towns. However cross-border marriage is becoming more common in all areas of Japan than before. In section three, we will present some common features of international marriage migration between South Korea and Japan. The origins of the female migrants, the features of the receiving rural communities, the role of the match making industry and the decision making process of migrants are examined in order. In the final section, we discuss the possibility of whether or not the international marriage can transform the rural communities of South Korea and Japan, and present future research tasks.
In this paper, I aim to explore the politics of gendered labor migration from the Philippines to Japan—especially focusing on Filipino female entertainers—from the local perspective based on research into “Philippine Pub space” in a specific city of Japan. While referring to geographical contributions to the understanding of gender and migration, firstly I explain the situation and background of female migration as entertainers from the Philippines to Japan during 1980 to 2006, and secondly trace how such gendered migration has been locally spatialized into Philippine Pub space. Through my case studies, I refer to both the landscape and the pub customers' gaze regarding Philippine Pub space. In conclusion, I will suggest that a specific form of spatialized migration as “nightscape of desire” reinforces and (re)produces unequal power relations of difference between Japanese men and Filipino women as well as Japan and the Philippines.
This research attempts to clarify the characteristics of the “poor” households in Phu An Commune, located on the shore of Tam Giang Lagoon, Central Vietnam. To understand the socioeconomic background of poverty in the area, the authors examine the changes in agriculture as well as shrimp aquaculture since the adoption of “Doi Moi”, an open-door policy, in 1986. Then, the constraints which make it difficult for them to escape from poverty are discussed. The results of this study show that agricultural and aquacultural changes have diversified the locals' livehoods. The positive changes are reflected in the decline of the number of “poor” households as well as in their evaluation of their lives compared with 20 years ago. Nevertheless, there are still many constraints which cause the “poor” households to remain poor in spite of the remarkable economic growth during the last 20 years. Insight into the detailed situation of poverty in the area is given through the categorization of the residents by their livelihood: mobile gear fishing (usually called “Sampan people”), fixed gear fishing, farming, farming and fishing, and service. In the process of the “Doi Moi” policy and following the introduction of shrimp aquaculture around 1999, the water surface of Tam Giang Lagoon, which used to be an open-access common resource, was allocated to individuals for their exclusive use and exploited mainly for shrimp aquaculture. Due to these drastic changes in local resource, the “Sampan people”, who have been engaged in only fishery in Tam Giang Lagoon, have changed their position in the commune from the greatest beneficiaries to those of sacrifices. Now the poorest in this area are those who engage in mobile gear fishing, the “Sampan people”.
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