Italy is a major tourist attraction for Europeans and the rest of the world's population because of its natural and cultural beauty. The high influx of tourists after the 1950s provoked an uncontrollable urbanization in Italy, which primarily occurred in coastal areas. The region of Liguria, which is located in Northwest Italy, suffered heavily during this period, and the progressive degradation of the landscape has been a topic of discussion in Liguria and the European community for the past few decades. This study employed Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to identify the areas visible from roads that are frequently used by tourists. Visibility analysis has been proposed as a method to help focus rehabilitation processes on the most visible areas. The lack of conservation demonstrates the progressive abandonment of rural areas and suggests that forest fires are degrading the quality of the landscape. Historical and typical cultivation areas, however, have been suggested as targets for initiation of the rehabilitation process. A balance is required between the development of the tourist infrastructure and the preservation of the local identity to allow for economic development while maintaining the natural and historical heritage of the region.
In Vietnam, a legal framework for Community Forest Management (CFM) development has been established since 2003. Although the government has paid increasing attention to development, CFM has yet to show notable signs of progress in this area. This paper aims to understand problems and challenges to CFM development. A field survey was conducted through different methods in which information was cross-checked for credibility. In August of 2009, an interview using visual tools was applied to informants with low education and considerable language barriers for reliable information. The results of this study showed that current laws and regulations of the time had been insufficient in supporting CFM development. These interviews indicate that during the process of implementing forest and forestland allocation policy, there was little effort to build people's awareness of the project or to properly develop the skills of those designated to work in a managerial capacity, and overall participation was limited due to the poor approach employed by policy implementers. Outside actors have less support and poor collaboration with the village community, leading to many villagers with poor knowledge of the laws, regulations and policy. Village regulation was less effective, and many households lost a chance to benefit from community forest. The CFM system did not function well and serious conflicts happened. Moreover, it was found that people's lack of arable land put a large pressure on CFM. The village failed to cover certain costs for the CFM operation as expected. Errors in defining forest boundary will make it difficult to stop severe disputes in the allocated forest. Failure to realize forestry production causes a decrease in people's interest and motivation to CFM.