In this paper, we describe and analyze the characteristics of the daily activities and living spaces of Japanese expatriates in Guangzhou, China. Our findings are based on data we generated through a survey questionnaire and interviews. As a result of Japanese transnational companies' intense direct investment in China and the personnel rotation systems within the internal labor market, many Japanese citizens have been relocated to Guangzhou. Japanese expatriates in Guangzhou are mainly managers or technical transferees, middle aged, male, and highly educated. On average, most stay in China for several years, and display the characteristics typical of a sojourner. In contemporary Guangzhou, eight Japanese “agglomeration spots” have been created. Japanese expatriates tend to concentrate in specific apartment complexes or residential lots within these agglomerations. They enjoy high-quality ambiance and spacious rooms with various services. The chief criteria employed when selecting their homes include the quality of the property, convenience in terms of traffic, onsite services and amenities, a beautiful environment, and being located within Japanese communities. The everyday lives of Japanese migrants unfold within a limited territory and these expatriates are relatively isolated from the host society. They shop, dine, and receive various services mainly at familiar Japanese-oriented facilities. They tend to live in their own Japanese-style small communities, without interacting with the host society. The abovementioned findings seem to have much in common with the situation of Japanese expatriates in other cities: residential areas are segregated from local citizens, and the self-sufficient living spaces built for them add to their isolation.
Australia has attracted a very large number of international students over the past decade. This paper has analysed residential development in an inner city location to show how the interaction between the commercial property industry, local urban policy and a specific source of demand shape what have been labeled “new build” outcomes in the gentrification of inner city areas. The paper focuses on the approach that draws upon the simultaneous effects of property market circumstances, urban policy and student demand. In this approach the paper looks beyond the traditional view of labour market driven gentrification of the central city (associated with the residential choices of producer service employees) and shows that student demand has been the prominent factor. It also shows how that demand has been spatially concentrated and contributed in particular to major change in a few parts of the city. A review of policy showed that the encouragement of residential development in the city of Melbourne was substantial. The Melbourne experience differs from the outcomes in US and UK cities described in previous papers that show impacts on local housing market have been seen as negative. The consequences for Melbourne are more deep-seated, and linked to broader social attitudes.