Prophylactic as well as therapeutic effects of elastase on the experimentally induced atherosclerosis in the adult rabbit were studied morphologically. Atherosclerosis was induced by the cholesterol feeding. Elastase was given by either per orally or intraperitoneal injection. The present investigation revealed that elastase possesses the distinct prophylactic effect on the atheroma formation. However, elastase was less effective in removing the atheroma already formed. The prophylactic effect of elastase was more prominent in the case of intraperitoneal injection than in the case of an oral administration. Histological findings suggested the fact that the prophylactic effect caused by daily intraperitoneal injection of 1mg elastase per kg of body weight was equivalent to that of the daily oral administration of 30mg elastase per kg of body weight. In both cases, however, the dose response was observed in the prophylactic effect. It was also shown that elastase prevented the occurrence of fatty liver by cholesterol feeding. Probable mechanisms of the anti-atherosclerotic effects of elastase were discussed.
The polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis technique has been applied to the fractionation of 386 samples of unconcentrated CSF obtained by atraumatic lumbar punctures, among which 122 fluids from 23 controls and 77 patients were categorized in this report. It was carried out by the method of Ornstein & Davis with these additional particulars. The gel tubes were 150.0mm in length and had a 5.0mm inside diameter. The quantity of CSF containing 200ug of protein in the volume which depended on the protein concentration of CSF, varying up to 0.80ml was included in each sample gel solution. The spacer gel solution of 0.40ml, layered over the separation gel of the usual volume made a better resolution of protein fractions of CSF. The normal CSF pattern showed 13 to 18 discrete bands. An electrophoretogram of a control CSF and its densitometric tracing are shown in Fig 2A and 1 respectively. The trace was devided into five zones: prealbumin-zone (Pre.-zone), albumin-zone (Alb.-zone), A-zone, B-zone and G-zone. The values of mean and standard deviation of relative concentration of each protein zone in 23 control samples of CSF were as follows; Pre. 10.9±2.7%, Alb.: 40.3±5.8%, A: 13.5±1.6%, B: 19.2±3.9%, G: 16.1±2.6% (Table I). Under various pathological conditions the protein concentration of CSF fluctuates. So all the samples were grouped into two. In one group the protein concentration of CSF was equal to or lower than 40mg/dl, in other words within normal range, and in the other it was higher than 40mg/dl, namely elevated. The mean values of relative concentrations of protein fractions of CSF in the various neurological diseases are summarized in Table III. Statistical tests of significance were applied to them (p<0.05), and the following significant results were obtained, as given in Table IV. For all the diseases of infectious meningitis, neurosyphilis, cerebral infarction, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis and intervertebral disk protrusion, when the protein concentration of CSF was greater than 40mg/dl, the value of relative concentration of the Pre.-zone decreased and that of the G-zone increased. In case of intervertebral disk protrusion the A-zone always elevated, and the Alb.-zone reduced when the total protein was normal. With respect to cerebral infarction, even though the protein concentration was within normal limits the A-zone enhanced and the Pre.-zone lowered. In spite of the normal protein concentration of CSF did the G-zone increase in the diseases of multiple sclerosis, brain tumors and intervertebral disk protrusion. The relationship of the G-zone to immunoglobulins has been briefly discussed.
A mass-examination on the oral cholecystography was performed to study the prevalence of an abnormal cholecystogram and its associated condition in apparently healthy subjects. For this, in addition to routine radiological examinations, liver function tests, glucose tolerance test, determination of serum cholesterol level and serum alkaline phosphatase level, blood pressure determination and electrocardiography were performed simultaneously. As a result, it was found that the reexaminaiton was recommendable in cases of non-visualized or poorly visualized gall bladder in the oral cholecystography. It was also observed that abnormal cholecystograms are closely associated with obesity or thinnes, and operated stomach. Furthermore, those with impaired GTT, hypertension or abnormal EGG indicated high incidence of abnormal cholecystogram, especially poorly visualized, enlarged or hypofunctional gall bladder.
Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) have kept the first rank of the fatality rate in Japan. Although the population of cerebral thrombosis has gradually increased to date, cerebral hemorrhage is still taking important place in CVA. It has been well experienced that fevering, unconsciousness and pathological respiration were fatal in the patients with CVA. In this study an attempt was made to determine the survival and mortality of cerebral hemorrhage by the method of linear discriminant function using clinical symptomes and laboratory findings on the onset. The patients of cerebral hemorrhage admitted to Osaka University Hospital were investigated. The clinical data were obtained from 63 patients (44 males, 19 females) including 19 death cases (13 males, 6 females). Age, sex, level of consciousness, vomiting, convulsion, incontinence of urine, abnormality of the pupils and light reflexes, pathological respiration, proteinuria, glucosuria, pulse rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white cell count and percentage of neutrophils were used as parameters of routine examination. Regarding quantification of each symptom, the method of“0 or 1” was adopted. For example, “0”or“1”represented that symptom was“absent”or“present”respectively. The correlation analysis and the Chi-square test between death or life and parameters mentioned above produced following results. Disturbance of consciousness, incontinence of urine, abnormality of light reflex of pupils, pulse rate, body temperature, blood pressure and white cell count correlated significantly with the fatal prognosis of the life. Especially incontinence of urine, pulse rate or body temperature was significant at the 0.1 percent level. By using above eight parameters, linear discriminant function was led to decide the survival of patient during one month after the onset. The formula was as follow: Score=-0.488×incont. unine -2.06×abnorm. of light reflex -1.33×level of consc. -0.0964×pulse rate (/min.) -1.59×body temp.(°C) +0.00122×systol. b. p.(mmHg) -0.0239×diastol. b. p.(mmHg) -0.000135×white cell count +75.6 “Score”was calculated in each patient according to this formula. If the score is above or equal zero, the patient was judged to be alive. If the score is below zero, the patient will die during one month. The probability of accurate diagnosis was calculated at 88.9% in the internal sample, white it was 83.9% in the external sample.
Information on the size and number of adipose tissue fat cells is of considerable interest in metabolic studies of obesity. Diameters of fat cells were measuered by the method of Björntorp with some modification. Adipose tissue, obtained by surgical operation or by percutaneous needle biopsy, was fixed in formaldehyde for 7 minutes. Thereafter, adipose tissue was frozen and sectioned by a microsome. Diameters of fat cells in a slice, floating in isotonic saline, were measuered under a microscope. In a given part of the slice, except perivascular region where small fat cells were found clusterring, 100 fat cells were measuered, avoiding any selection. Almost normal distribution of fat cell diameters was found by this method. The average error of this method for diameter was 7.2%. This method is less expensive and requires a smaller amount of tissue than the other method and appeared to be useful in clinical and metabolic studies. Adipose tissue samples, obtained from 15 patients at surgical operations, were analyzed by this method, revealing that the weight of fat cell correlated significantly with percent ideal body weight (p<0.01). However, difference could not be demonstrated in this correlation between the group over 60 yrs and the group under 60 yrs. Subjects expressing their obesity in their childhoods had smaller fat cells than those who had become obese in adult life, even though two groups showed almost similar weight index. This fact suggests that the obesity developed in childhood could be due to an increase in the number of fat cells with concomitant increase of cell size.
A study of atherosclerosis in the arteries of the circle of Willis was carried out in 920 autopsy cases using Baker's coding technique. Cerebral atherosclerosis could be detected in the 3rd decade, and then the frequency and severity of cerebral atherosclerosis gradually increased with each succeeding decade. In the 6th decade half of the cases showed some gross evidence of cerebral atherosclerosis. By the 8th decade of life, only 7% of males and 2% of fmales failed to show atherosclerotic changes in the cerebral vessels, and half of the cases showed severe cerebral atherosclerosis. In subjects over 80 years old almost all cases showed severe cerebral atherosclerosis. The cerebral arteries were much more severely involved by the atherosclerotic process in the younger male population than in females of the same age groups and beyond the 8th decade of life the female scores were much higher than those for males.
Not only the conversion of 1-14C stearic acid and 1-14C linoleic acid but also the esterification of labeled fatty acids were studied in vitro by using the whole blood. The subjects studied were 8 adult type of diabetics with good control, 7 cases of liver cirrhosis who were clinically not considered to have been complicated with primary diabetes mellitus in spite of having impaired glucose tolerance, and 10 normal persons. Results 1) It was found in the distribution of labeled fatty acids in major lipid classes that approximately 90% was remained unesterified, 6-10% in the mean value was in phospholipid, 1-5% in triglyceride, and less than 0.3% in cholesterol ester, in both cases of incubation with 1-14C stearic acid and 1-14C linoleic acid. Both groups of diabetics and liver cirrhosis showed depression in the esterification of labeled fatty acids into both triglyceride and phospholipid in termes of percentage as well as absolute value in both cases of incubation with labeled stearic and linoleic acid. 2) The absolute value of esterification into phospholipid in each group was greater than that of triglyceride from the point of view of total and every individual fatty acid in both cases of incubation with 1-14C stearic and linoleic acid. However, in the case of incubation with 1-14C stearic acid, the fatty acids with 18 carbons or ess showed higher percentage and the fatty acids with 20 carbons or more showed lower percentage in triglyceride as compared to phospholipid. On the other hand, in the case of 1-14C linoleic acid the percentage of 18:2 was higher and that of the fatty acids with retention time corresponding to 20:4 or longer were lower in triglyceride and others were almost same percentage between both lipid classes. 3) In the case of incubation with 1-14C stearic acid, the decrease of percentage of recovered cpm in 18:1 and the increase of percentage in 18:2 were found in both triglyceride and phospholipid in the group of liver cirrhosis as well as diabetics. Beside the increase of percentage of recovered cpm in 20:2 was found in phospholipid of diabetic group, while, the increase of percentage of recovered cpm in 20:4 or greater and the decrease in 18:0 in phospholipid were found in the group of liver cirrhosis. 4) In the case of incubation with 1-14C linoleic acid the striking increase of percentage of recovered cpm in 20:3 was found only in the diabetic group in both triglyceride and phospholipid, so that this change was considered to be specific for diabetics. While the decrease of the percentag of recovered cpm in 18:3 of both lipid classes was found in the groups of diabetics and liver cirrhosis, however, this decrease was rather striking in the diabetic group. Moreover, the decrease of percentage of recovered cpm in 18:2 and the increase in fatty acids with retention time less than 18:2 were found in the triglyceride of diabetic group.