Arachidonic acid (AA) and thromboxane A2 are potent aggregators of human platelets but, in contrast, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and thromboxane A3 do not cause platelet aggregation. The concentrations of AA and EPA in human serum lipids were measured in relation to ageing using gasliquid chromatography. 1) No significant age variation was observed in the amounts of total fatty acids in serum. However, differences in fatty acid compositions were observed between the young group and the aged group with higher percentages of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and with lower percentages of polyunsaturated ones in the aged. 2) Serum level of AA decreased with age both in males and females, whereas the opposite change was observed in the level of EPA. Then, EPA/AA ratios were significantly higher in the aged groups than in the young one. 3) The distribution of AA and EPA into triglycerides, cholesterol esters and phospholipids in serum were also studied. 4) The results were discussed, especially in relation to dietary habits.
It has been reported that dietary fibers like glucomannan was useful both in the treatment of diabetics and in the prevention of obesity. However, the literatures on the inhibitors of α-amylase were not comfirmed yet fully. To evaluate whether an α-amylase inhibitor-X-2 substance isolated from streptomyces fradiae could be benefit therapeutically in diabetics and prophylactically in obesity, firstly, we examined the effects of X-2 substance on glucoside hydrolases derived from both the small intestinal mucosa of pigs and the human pancreatic juice. Secondly, we would like to evaluate the optimal concentration of X-2 substance in vivo by normal and/or alloxan induced diabetic rats. The results obtained were as follows: 1) X-2 substance showed the inhibitory effect on α-amylase markedly, which also had the weak inhibitory effect on sucrase. 2) 66, 000U/kg of X-2 substance reduced the level of blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic rats significantly, and the level of serum insulin in normal rats with starch loading (2g/kg). 3) 180, 000U/kg of X-2 substance was necessary for sucrose loading (2g/kg) to obtain the same effect as starch loading on the reduction of blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic rats and of serum insulin in normal rats.
The incidence, severity and mechanism of disturbance of liver function tests in chronic congestive heart failure was analized clinically and pathologically on 92 cases, admitted to the C.C.U., of whom about 70% showed severe heart failure of class 3 or 4 by the classification of NYHA. The incidence of disturbance of liver function tests was the highest on ICG, followed by test of GOT, LDH and Alp, and the incidence of elevation of bilirubin, observed in the half of the cases, was the lowest. Most of the cases showed mild to moderate disturbance of liver function tests, and as for GOT, for example, 80% of the cases showed lower than 100 I.U., while, 10% of the cases showed more than 200 I.U.. Histologically, the level of GOT was correlated well with the centrilobular necrosis rather than congestions of the liver. The level of GOT, supposed to be the marker of liver damage, showed the tendency of elevation with the severity of congestive heart failure expressed by the grading of NYHA. However, on individual cases, level of GOT did not correlated with cubital venous pressure and only minor degree correlated negatively with arterial oxygen content. Most of cases with GOT more than 200 I.U. were complicated with shock and/or DIG, and it was suggested that the complication of the general or localized circulatory disturbance on congestive heart failure was one of the important causes of the severe liver damage.