Background: An increasing incidence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL-) producing Escherihia Coli poses a difficult problem for clinicians to establish an optimal strategy for the effective antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI). Methods: (1) Fosfomycin/minocycline (FOM/MINO) or rifampicin/sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (RFP/ST) combinations and (2) levofloxacin (LVFX) alone were used as an internal medication, and (3) cefoperazone/sulbactam (CPZ/SBT) and (4) meropenem (MEPM) were administered through intravenous injection. The selection of antibiotics was done empirically, according to the history and severity of illness and urinary findings, and the presence of comobidities. The efficacy of the treatment was determined by the absence of any pathogenic bacteria from a urinary culture after treatment. Results: ESBL-producing and LVFX resistant non-ESBL producing E. coli were detected by an initial urinary culture in 33 and 10%, respectively, of the specimens before treatment. All the ESBL-producing E. Coli colonies were resistant against LVFX. The efficacy of the treatment was 9/11 (82%) in the FOM/MINO-RFP/ST group, 9/14 (64%) in the LVFX group, 9/16 (56%) in the CPZ/SBT group, and 19/27 (70%) in the MEPM group. In the FOM/MINO・RFP/ST group, ESBL-producing E. Coli were detected in the urine before treatment in 5 out of 16 patients and those E. coli disappeared after treatment in all 5 patients. In the LVFX group, the drug was changed to MEPM in 6 out of 15 patients soon after the presence of ESBL-producing/LVFX resistant E. Coli was identified by a urinary culture. In the CPZ/SBT group, ESBL-producing and/or LVFX-resistant E. coli disappeared in 4 out of 6 cases, while they were newly found in post-treatment urine cultures in 2 patients. In the MEPM group, 15 out of 28 patients initially had ESBL-producing/LVFX resistant E. Coli and those drug-resistant E. Coli disappeared from their urine after treatment in all patients. The drug susceptibility test of the urinary culture from all the patients with UTI showed CPZ/SBT-resistant colonies to be found in 19 out of 32 specimens, while AMPC/CVA-resistant ones were found in 9 out of 32 of ESBL-producing E. Coli. Conclusions: Our present study demonstrates that FOM/MINO or ST combinations were effective in the treatment of ESBL-producing E. Coli in mild cases of UTI and MEPM in severe cases. When using β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, the effect should be ascertained by examining post-treatment urinary specimens, because of the presence of ESBL-producing E. Coli strains which are resistant to those antibiotics.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the degree of improvement in cognitive function achieved with an exercise intervention in community-dwelling older Japanese women is affected by the participant's baseline cognitive function and age. Methods: Eighty-eight women (mean age: 70.5±4.2 years) participated in a prevention program for long-term care. They completed the Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) program once a week, 120 minutes/session, for 11 weeks. We assessed participants' cognitive function using 5 cognitive tests (5-Cog) before and after the intervention. We defined cognitive function as the 5-Cog total score and defined the change in cognitive function as the 5-cog post-score minus the pre-score. We divided participants into four groups based on age (≤69 years or ≥70 years) and baseline cognitive function level (above vs. below the median cognitive function level). We conducted two-way analysis of variance. Results: All 4 groups improved significantly in cognitive function after the intervention. There were no baseline cognitive function level×age interactions and no significant main effects of age, although significant main effects of baseline cognitive function level (P=0.004, η2=0.09) were observed. Conclusion: Square-Stepping Exercise is an effective exercise for improving cognitive function. These results suggest that older adults with cognitive decline are more likely to improve their cognitive function with exercise than if they start the intervention with high cognitive function. Furthermore, during an exercise intervention, baseline cognitive function level may have more of an effect than a participant's age on the degree of cognitive improvement.
Aim: To clarify the routes of nutrition and types of diet and their relevance to the risk of mortality and hospitalization among community-dwelling dependent elderly provided various home care services under the long-term care insurance program. Methods: The present study consisted of the collection of baseline data of participants in the Nagoya Longitudinal Study of the Frail Elderly (NLS-FE) and data regarding mortality and hospitalization during a three-year follow-up period. The study population consisted of 1,872 subjects, and the baseline data included demographic characteristics, basic activities of daily living (ADLs), comorbidities, nutritional routes and types of diet, which were evaluated by trained visiting nurses. Results: Among the participants, 1,786 were on oral nutrition (solid regular-texture diet: 1,487 (79.5%); modified-texture diet (minced/pureed texture): 299 (16.0%), 82 (4.4%) were on enteral nutrition and four (0.2%) were on parenteral nutrition. During the three-year follow-up period, 453 participants died and 798 participants experienced admission to the hospital (pneumonia-related death and hospitalization: n=103 and 155, respectively). Cox regression models revealed that a modified-texture diet and tube feeding are associated with all-cause mortality and hospitalization. In particular, feeding tube use showed a high risk of pneumonia-related mortality and hospitalization, even after adjusting for potential confounders, including comorbidities and the ADL status.
A 70-year-old man with a 28-year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted due to persistent vomiting and neurological abnormalities in Nov 2012. He had developed gait disturbance and diplopia for six months during antiplatelet therapy, which was initiated following the diagnosis of a cerebellar infarction in June 2012. He had nystagmus, truncal ataxia and an ocular motility disorder, and the MRI study showed increased FLAIR and DWI signals in the peri-third ventricle and periaqueductal region, in addition to the cerebellar vermis. Wernicke encephalopathy was suspected according to his symptoms, and thiamine administration dramatically improved his condition. He did not have a history of alcohol abuse or poor eating habits; however, various coexisting factors, including diabetes mellitus, pyloric stenosis and the use of antiulcer drugs and insulin, were considered to be responsible for Wernicke encephalopathy. This case demonstrates the importance of distinguishing Wernicke encephalopathy from cerebrovascular disease in elderly patients.