Aim: We compared the nutritional and dietary intakes of users of mobile vendor vehicles and users of stores to clarify the problems in the nutritional intake of users of mobile vendor vehicles.
Methods: We conducted a questionnaire about the food accessibility among 257 elderly women (age: ≥65 years) who used mobile vendor vehicles and/or stores to shop. The nutritional intake was assessed using the 24-hour recall method. We used an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to calculate the age-adjusted mean values for the total nutritional intake.
Results: The nutritional intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles included significantly lower intakes of energy (168 kcal), green vegetables, other vegetables, and meats. Furthermore, those who only shopped at mobile vendor vehicles consumed less energy and fewer nutrients than those who shopped at places other than mobile vendor vehicles. The comparison of the shopping frequency and nutritional intake of the subjects who used mobile vendor vehicles alone revealed that the energy and protein intakes of those who shopped once per week was significantly lower in comparison to those who shopped twice per week.
Conclusions: Users of mobile vendor vehicles had lower intakes of macronutrients and various minerals and vitamins. Among the food groups, intakes of vegetables, meat, and dairy products were low. These findings suggest that the lack of means of shopping other than mobile vendor vehicles and shopping once per week may be associated with an inadequate dietary intake among users of mobile vendor vehicles. It would be desirable to develop the shopping environment is desirable.
Purpose: We examined the factors related to life space and changes in the care level after one year in daycare center users.
Methods: The participants were 83 older adults (age, > 65 years; mean age, 79.5±6.8 years) with MMSE scores of ≥20, who could walk independently, who needed support (1-2) or care (1), and who underwent rehabilitation at a daycare center. The life space was evaluated by the Life Space Assessment (LSA). The subjects' basic information (i.e., age, medical history.) was collected, and their physical function (i.e., grip strength, timed up and go test [TUG]), mental function (i.e., vitality, fear of falls), and social function (i.e., friends, hobbies, public transportation) were assessed to investigate the factors associated with their LSA scores. In addition, a follow-up survey was conducted on the care level at approximately one year later.
Results: A multiple regression analysis indicated that TUG scores (β=-0.33), hobbies (β=0.30), friends (β=0.29), public transportation (β=0.26), and grip strength (β=0.24) were related to the life space. Next, the participants were divided into LSA-high and LSA-low groups, and changes in the care level (improvement, maintenance, deterioration) at approximately one year after the initial assessment were examined using a chi-squared test. A significant difference was observed in the distribution of the groups (p=0.03).
Conclusions: Multiple factors were related to the life space. Moreover, it is possible that improvements in the level of care may be achieved by improving the life space.
Aim: Although it is well documented that exercising is good for the mental health and cognitive function as well as the physical condition in elderly people, exercising is difficult in elderly individuals with a low motor function. To develop an exercise program targeting elderly individuals unsuited for whole-body exercises, we assessed the effects of facial exercises on the mental health in healthy elderly people.
Methods: Community-dwelling older adults (N = 75, age range = 65-87 years) were randomly divided into a facial exercises group and a wait-listed control group. A facial exercises program of 30 min was given twice a week for 12 weeks. This program consisted of rhythmic facial movement, muscle stretching, facial yoga, and Tanden breathing. The GHQ-12 for mental health were administered to both groups before and after the 12-week study period. In addition, the facial expression and tongue muscle power were measured.
Results: Fifty-three participants completed the protocol. In the intervention group, the GHQ-12, facial expression, and tongue muscle power improved post-intervention.
Conclusions: These results suggest that facial exercises are effective in improving the mental health, facial expression, tongue muscle power of elderly people, and that exercises may be useful as a therapeutic modality in this population.
Aim: To develop a Japanese version of the short-form FAMCARE Scale (Ornstein, 2015) for family caregivers of terminal cancer patients at home.
Methods: The survey was conducted with 316 family caregivers of terminal cancer patients at home selected as eligible participants in 11 major regions in Japan (the Tokyo metropolitan area, and the prefectures of Tochigi, Ibaraki, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa, Nara, Hyogo, Kagawa, Ehime, and Saga). Construct validity was confirmed using a confirmatory factor analysis, and the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) scale was administered to assess criterion-related validity.
Results: A total of 120 family caregivers provided valid responses. The mean±standard deviation of the age of the family caregivers was 64.6±12.0 years, and 91 (75.8%) were female. A factor analysis of the results showed that the Japanese version of the 10-item and 5-item short-form FAMCARE Scale was a unidimensional construct, and a confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a goodness of fit index of 0.910 and 0.972, an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.835 and 0.916, a comparative fit index of 0.968 and 0.992, and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.095 and 0.081, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficients of the 10- and 5-item scales were 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The scale scores were significantly correlated with the family caregiver's quality of life (CQOLC) (10-item r=0.304, P<0.01; 5-item r=0.311, P<0.01).
Conclusion: The Japanese version of the 10-item and 5-item short-form FAMCARE Scale was found to have sufficient reliability and validity for assessing family satisfaction with terminal cancer patient at home in Japan.
Objective: The hemodialysis (HD) diet, which is a high-calorie and high-fat regimen, may inadvertently lead to an inadequate dietary intake, resulting in undernutrition among elderly HD patients. Therefore, an attempt was made to improve the dietary intake by implementing a modified diet regimen in eligible elderly HD patients.
Subjects: Elderly HD patients who had ingested < 50% of the meals provided and were diagnosed with undernutrition among all elderly patients institutionalized at the special elderly nursing home annexed to Nagasaki Kidney Hospital between June and November 2012.
Results: Of the elderly HD patients in the nursing home (n = 27), the study included a total of 7 consecutive patients (male/female, 1/6; mean age, 84.1±6.4 years old; duration of HD, 4.3±3.8 years; geriatric nutritional index [GNRI], 83.5±8.3; normalized protein catabolic ratio [nPCR], 0.78±0.14). The modified diet regimen, which involved reducing food portion sizes and incorporating a liquid diet, led to a significant increase in their dietary intake from 48.1% at baseline to 97.1% of the meals provided 3 months after the start of the modified HD diet regimen. Their GNRI also significantly increased from 83.5±8.3 to 86.1±10.2, and their serum albumin levels significantly increased from 3.2±0.2 g/dL to 3.4±0.4 g/dL, suggesting improvements in their nutritional status.
Conclusions: The attempted dietary approach for elderly HD patients was shown to potentially increase their dietary intake and improve their nutritional status without affecting the efficiency of HD being implemented.
Aim: We developed quality-of-life (QOL) scales for patients receiving home medical care. The objective of this study was to examine the agreement between the scores of the scales answered by patients and those answered by their proxy, as cognitive decline may interfere with one's ability to understand complex topics, such as the QOL.
Methods: Participants were pairs of patients receiving home medical care and their proxy. The patients were asked to complete self-reported QOL scales (QOL-HC), and their proxies were asked to complete proxy-reported versions of the QOL scales (QOL-HC for caregivers). We then statistically examined the extent of agreement between the self- and proxy-reported QOL-HC scores using contingency tables and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The SPSS software program, version 24, was used for all statistical analyses.
Results: The concordance rate between patients and caregivers for questions 1 ( "Do you have peace of mind?" ), 2 ( "Do you feel satisﬁed with your life when you reﬂect on it?" ), 3 ( "Do you have someone that you spend time talking with?" ), and 4 ( "Are you satisﬁed with the home care service system?" ) were 52.3%, 52.3%, 79.5%, and 81.8%, respectively. The total scores for the patients and caregivers were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ=0.364*).
Conclusions: We created the first QOL scale for patients receiving home-based medical care and for caregivers. The findings of this study suggest that the QOL-HC can be used in clinical practice for the assessment of patients receiving professional home care.
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of rice-farming care among elderly people with cognitive impairment as a tool for social inclusion.
Methods: Eight elderly individuals with cognitive impairment (7 men, 1 woman, mean age 68.3 years old) participated in the program over 25 weeks. The cognitive function, well-being, and depression were assessed before and after the program period. The degree of participants' independence during the program was also assessed. Semi-structured interviews with the participants and caregivers were held after the program period.
Results: The average participation rate was 93.0%. There were no unexpected events, and the subjects carried out farmwork almost independently. Regarding their well-being, two participants who scored below the cut-off criterion of mental health before the study scored above the cut-off after the study. Regarding depression, two participants who scored positive with a two-question case-finding instrument no longer scored positive after the study. Interviews with the participants showed that they enjoyed the program, especially because they had peers, a role, and gained positive emotions. Interviews with the caregivers showed that they had recognized for the first time what people can do with their skills.
Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that rice-farming was a feasible method of care with a positive impact on the well-being and depression of elderly people with cognitive impairment and enhanced their social participation, drawing out their individual strengths.
Aim: Typical neuropsychological methods for measuring the verbal memory function include the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). The stimulus words of the CVLT are structured according to their semantic categories, and many researchers have claimed that the CVLT can also evaluate subjects' memory strategy. However, the stimulus words of these tests do not have equal difficulty, which is necessary when comparing their performances directly, and there are no standard word lists for them in Japanese. In this study, we developed two word lists with the same number and difficulty of stimulus words in order to examine the effects of aging on the comprehension of structured word lists.
Methods: A non-structured (NS) verbal memory test to represent the AVLT and a structured (S) test to represent the CVLT were developed. The subjects were 40 healthy young adults (18-25 years of age) and 40 healthy elderly individuals (65-80 years of age).
Results: The results revealed that the elderly group correctly recalled significantly fewer words than the young group. The elderly group demonstrated a significantly higher rate of word loss due to interference. The number of correctly recalled words in the elderly group was significantly more for the S test than for the NS test, which was not the case in the young group.
Conclusions: Since elderly people have a poorer verbal memory than younger people, they gain more benefit from the S test, in which the word list is structured and subjects may be able to use memory strategies more easily. This is the first study in Japan to present standardized word lists for list-learning tasks and their normative data in different age groups.
Aim: Efforts to improve the treatment of frail elderly patients in acute care hospitals are urgently needed because a low physical activity level due to hospitalization is reported to be associated with a risk of disability. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of frail elderly patients in acute care hospitals.
Methods: We assessed 198 elderly patients who were admitted to acute care hospitals. The factors that were evaluated included the presence of frailty, the age, gender, and nutritional status of the patients, and complications that developed during hospitalization. In this study, frailty was evaluated using the Kihon checklist (KCL), and was defined by a total KCL score of ≥7 points.
Results: A total of 87 (43.9%) subjects met the definition of frailty and there was a female predominance (63.2%). The nutritional status of the subjects with frailty was significantly worse than that of the non-frail patients. In comparison to the non-frail subjects, the frail subjects were significantly older and the onset of complications during hospitalization was observed significantly more frequently. Moreover, a large number of frail subjects showed low scores on the KCL items related to their social activity, physical and oral functions, and psychological status.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that efforts to improve the treatment of frail elderly patients in acute care hospitals are important because of the high incidence of frailty. Multifaceted assessments and the promotion of physical activity to prevent the onset of complications during hospitalization may be needed for frail elderly patients in acute care hospitals.
Patients who undergo percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement are often on antiplatelet therapy. There is a potential risk of infarction if these medications are discontinued.
The guidelines of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society, classify PEG as an operation associated with a high risk of bleeding; however, it is known that surgery can be performed without interruption when patients are treated with low-dose aspirin alone. Nevertheless, we experienced the case of severe bleeding at the incision site, which was accompanied by massive hematemesis and hemorrhagic shock the night after PEG using the modified introducer method in an 87-year-old male patient. The patient was being treated with Bayer aspirin (100 mg/day, oral). The patient's platelet count, PT, and APTT were within the normal levels. Thus, we decided to investigate the pull method as the effective method for pressure hemostasis comparing with the modified introducer method, to reduce the risks associated with bleeding after surgery when patients are being treated with antiplatelet drugs.
PEG was performed by the pull method on eight patients who were being treated with oral antiplatelet drugs (including four patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy [DAPT]). All patients had previously suffered strokes, and they all presented with normal platelet counts, PT, and APTT values.
Only slight bleeding was observed in one out of eight patients (bleeding had stopped by the following day using an alginate patch on the abdominal wall at the incision site, along with direct pressure using a stationary plate). None of the patients showed infection at the incision site.
Although the study population was small, the present study showed that PEG using the pull method is safe while patients are being treated with oral antiplatelet drugs.
We report the case of an 82-year-old woman who developed pneumothorax during treatment for nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM). In year X, she was diagnosed with NTM at another hospital after abnormalities were pointed out on a chest X-ray. She received no treatment for NTM at that time. Antibiotic treatment was introduced at the department of respiratory medicine in our hospital in year X+15. The regimen was composed of clarithromycin (800 mg/day), ethambutol (750 mg/day) and rifampicin (600 mg/day); however, treatment with the three-drug antibiotic regimen was canceled at her request and changed to erythromycin. She was then referred to our department. However, right-side cavity wall thickening was detected on chest CT in year X+17.
We resumed clarithromycin (600 mg/day), ethambutol (750 mg/day) and rifampicin (450 mg/day). On the 43rd day after treatment with three types of antibiotics, she felt dyspnea and she was admitted to the hospital and was diagnosed with right-side pneumothorax. The pneumothorax was thought to have been caused by a break in the adhesion of the cavity wall. The visceral pleura was weakened by the exacerbation of NTM and the thickness of the cavity wall was improved after the resumption of antibiotic therapy. This report is considered to be an important case in which pneumothorax developed as a complication in an elderly patient during treatment for NTM.
An 84-year-old man, who had received artificial pneumothorax for pulmonary tuberculosis 67 years previously, complained of severe chest pain. Chest CT revealed chronic pyothorax with multiple heterogeneously enhanced cavity lesions in the wall of the right intrathoracic space. 18FDG-PET revealed that the lesions showed an abnormal uptake. CT-guided biopsy was performed and he was diagnosed with pyothorax-associated lymphoma (PAL); the histological diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that the tumor cells were positive for EBNA-2 and LMP-1, suggesting that the latent gene products of Epstein-Barr virus were associated with the development of PAL. The patient was treated with chemotherapy, including rituximab; however, the treatment was discontinued due to the development of severe delirium after chemotherapy. We should keep in mind that elderly patients with a long history of chronic pyothorax are at risk of developing malignant lymphoma. We report the present case with a brief review of the literature.