As a result of rapid aging, the number of elderly diabetic patients with decreased self-management ability in Japan is increasing. Currently, family members primarily perform self-injection at home and self-measurement of blood glucose for patients that require these procedures. Patients who cannot receive assistance from family members, will be admitted into long-term care homes. Due to the shortage of nurses in many long-term care homes, the homes can only accept a limited number of diabetic patients with decreased self-management abilities. There are two measures that may be considered: the first is to significantly increase the number of nurses; the second is to delegate diabetes care to non-medical and non-nursing care workers in long-term care homes. However, both options should be carefully considered before making a choice.
New York City faced an explosive spread of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), causing the city's death toll to spike owing to the high virulence of COVID-19. The health care system was on the verge of collapse. Advance care planning (ACP), informed assent, and palliative care played significant roles in supporting patient self-determination and dignity, facilitating decision making, and promoting better care. The importance of these strategies was revisited. Learning from the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City, it is anticipated that several approaches such as ACP and palliative intervention may attract more attention and become increasingly essential to the healthcare system in Japan.
Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the effects of dementia care mapping (DCM) for one year in a healthcare center for older adults. DCM was conducted between September 2016 and August 2017. The care staff include nurses and caregivers in a narrow sense, medical staff, such as a physician, physical therapists, and occupational therapists worked on DCM as care staff in this study.
Results: There were 24 participants, with an average work experience of 7.21 (±4.74) years. In comparison to the baseline evaluation, the final assessment of self-efficacy through person-centred care showed significant improvement in 'Forecasting and Problem Solving on the Job' within 'Perceived Job Competence of Care Workers'. Six main categories of content were extracted from focus group interviews: 'Awareness,' 'Change of Elderly People under the Care of Staff throughout the Development of Mapping', 'Affirmative Feelings of Care Staff for Mapping', 'Negative Feelings for Mapping', 'Need for the Efficacy and Efficiency of the Mapping', and 'Mapping Based on the Age of the Participant and Future Prospects for Mapping'. The results of person-centred care showed that both the older patients and the staff noticed changes through the development of mapping.
Conclusion: The developmental evaluation, based on collaboration by medical and welfare staff can improve self-efficacy through the practice of person-centred care and improves the ability to solve problems during the provision of care.
Aim: To categorize the age-related trajectories of dietary variety score (DVS) in the community-dwelling elderly and to examine the associated factors.
Methods: The study population included 1,195 people who underwent a medical checkup for the elderly in Kusatsu-town, Gunma Prefecture in 2012 to 2017. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the factors associated with the age-related trajectories of DVS. The dependent variables were sex, age, family structure, years of education, BMI, subjective chewing ability, TMIG-IC, GDS-15, MMSE, smoking, alcohol consumption, and history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and stroke.
Results: The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of the low trajectory group in comparison to the medium trajectory group were 2.69 (1.02-7.08) for subjective chewing ability (no chewing), 1.11 (1.06-1.17) for GDS-15, 1.76 (1.14-2.73) for current smoking, and 1.70 (1.19-2.43) for past smoking. In contrast, the adjusted odds ratio of the high trajectory group in comparison to the medium trajectory group were 0.61 (0.37-1.00) for men, 1.04 (1.01-1.07) for age, 0.58 (0.38-0.89) for subjective masticatory ability (difficult to chew), 0.88 (0.82-0.96) for GDS-15, and 0.55 (0.37-0.83) for a history of hypertension.
Conclusions: The age-related trajectory patterns of DVS in the community-dwelling elderly can be categorized into three types. In order to maintain a high quality of food intake, it was shown that, in addition to subjective masticatory ability and mental health factors, such as depression, we should pay attention to the control of hypertension, which is a risk factor for lifestyle diseases, and lifestyle habits such as smoking.
Aim: To determine the rate of a decreased oral function using questions from the Kihon checklist corresponding to the Questionnaire for Latter-stage Elderly People and to clarify nutrient intake in older persons.
Methods: This study targeted 511 older people (217 men, 294 women, average age 73.1±5.6 years old). Their oral function was evaluated using questions on the masticatory function and swallowing function from the Kihon checklist, corresponding to questions on the oral function in the Questionnaire for Latter-stage Elderly People. Participants who had at least one symptom measured were defined as the applicable group (AG). In addition, to evaluate the nutrient intake of the participants, interviews were conducted using the Food Frequency Questionnaire Based on Food Groups.
Results: The rate of inclusion in the AG was 32.9% for the total sample, 28.2% for early-stage elderly people, and 40.1% for latter-stage elderly people. The AG rates did not differ significantly between men and women. For latter-stage elderly people, the protein-energy ratio and intakes of total energy, protein, pantothenic acid, folic acid, vitamin B6, niacin, vitamin K, copper, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and total dietary fiber were significantly lower in the AG than in the non-AG.
Conclusion: The evaluation of placement in the AG through questions on the oral function from the Kihon checklist corresponding to the Questionnaire for Latter-stage Elderly People demonstrated that the rate of a decreased oral function was higher in latter-stage elderly people than in early-stage elderly people. In addition, the latter-stage elderly people in the AG had a lower nutrient intake.
Aim: To investigate the longitudinal association between health literacy and frailty status at two-year follow-up in community-dwelling older adults.
Methods: A total of 218 older adults (mean age, 72.5±4.9 [range 65-86] years old; men, n=81) without frailty at baseline participated in this study. Functional health literacy was assessed using the Newest Vital Sign (NVS). Comprehensive health literacy was assessed using the 47-item European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47). Comprehensive health literacy indices are constructed as a general health literacy index comprising all items along with the three sub-indices of health care, disease prevention, and health promotion domains. Demographic data and other potential confounding factors were also assessed. The total Kihon checklist score was used to monitor the presence of frailty based on a score of ≥8 at the 2-year follow-up (postal survey).
Results: Of the 253 participants in the follow-up survey, 226 responded (response rate: 89.3%). Excluding the 8 participants with missing values, 25 (11.5%) of the 218 were reported to be frail. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that comprehensive health literacy (total score of HLS-EU-Q47) was independently associated with a lower risk of frailty (odds ratio per standard deviation = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.33-0.87) after adjusting for the covariates (age, gender, education, body mass index, gait speed, cognitive function, and comorbidities). The health care and disease prevention domain scores of the HLS-EU-Q47 were also independently associated with a lower risk of frailty. Functional health literacy (NVS score) was not associated with frailty.
Conclusions: Older adults with higher comprehensive health literacy are less likely to be frail at two-year follow-up than those with a lower literacy.
Aim: This study aimed to improve the understanding of the utilization rates and the characteristics of users of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Methods: We used medical and long-term care claims data from between April 2012 and March 2013 from Kashiwa city in Chiba prefecture, Japan. The study participants included patients of ≥63 years of age, who had received outpatient treatment for COPD (ICD-10 codes: J41-J44) two or more times during the study period, and who had been prescribed two or more COPD-related drugs. We extracted data on inpatient and outpatient PR using respiratory rehabilitation fee (I) (II) codes, and on home-based PR using home-care rehabilitation or nursing codes from medical insurance or long-term care insurance data.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 76.8 years (total participation: n = 2,708). There were 61 (2.3%) inpatient PR users, 25 (0.9%) outpatient PR users, and 101 (3.8%) home-based PR users. The median duration of usage by the inpatient, outpatient and home-based PR users was 1 month, 2 months, and 11 months, respectively. The mean age of non-PR and outpatient PR users was 76 years, while that of the inpatient PR users and home-based PR users was approximately 80 years. Approximately 20-30% of non-PR users and outpatient PR users were certified for long-term care. In contrast, approximately half of the inpatient users and almost all of the home-based PR users were certified for long-term care.
Conclusions: Since the PR utilization rates were low in both hospital-based and home-based settings, it is necessary to take measures to disseminate each PR based on the characteristics of the intervention duration and service users.
Aim: The controlling nutrition status (CONUT) score assesses the nutritional status of subjects by considering the serum albumin level, total lymphocyte count, and total cholesterol level. We estimated the efficacy of total parenteral nutrition for improving the nutritional status and zinc deficiency.
Methods: In total, 493 elderly inpatients who were admitted to the internal medicine department of an emergency hospital over 7 years were divided into 2 groups: patients who were discharged (320 patients) and those who died in the hospital (173 patients). The discharged patients were further divided to four groups according time of discharge from the hospital; oral nutrition, enteral nutrition, peripheral parenteral nutrition, and total parenteral nutrition. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA), we compared the albumin and zinc levels and the CONUT score within 10 days post-admission and before discharge from the hospital.
Results: Japanese society is rapidly aging. In patients who were leaving the hospital, the CONUT score improved with oral and enteral nutrition. The zinc level improved with oral, enteral, peripheral parenteral, and total parenteral nutrition. While the nutritional status of patients at the time of discharge improved with oral and enteral nutrition, total parenteral nutrition without oral or enteral nutrition did not improve the status.
Conclusion: To discharge patients alive, efforts must be made to continue oral and enteral nutrition for as long as possible.
Aim: Interprofessional communication and collaboration is essential for a better end-of-life and death, where individual dying people are respected and their satisfaction is the goal. The aim of this study is to explore 1) ethical conflicts viewed by care staff of geriatric institutions, 2) their views about geriatric medicine, and 3) their views about religion in the context of institutional end-of-life care.
Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted by Buddhist priests and researchers with nine care workers who worked in nursing homes or long-stay geriatric hospitals. This interview was conducted as part of a research project that investigated the feasibility of the engagement of religious workers in the geriatric care setting.
Results: Regarding ethical conflicts, six themes were merged: difficulty in knowing the will of the person being cared for, dissonance with the family, older person's wish to die, losing the purpose for living, staff not being used to death, and families not being used to death. Regarding geriatric medicine, eight themes were merged: gratitude for cooperation, persuasive explanation, not accepting death, not allowing patients to share a peer's death, cold attitude, being drug therapy centered, not being person-centered, and heavy burden for patients. Regarding religion, five themes were merged: expectation for salvation, barrier to hospitals, already involved in nursing homes, explicit religious traits are acceptable, and favorable character of religious workers in institutions.
Conclusions: Communication between geriatric physicians, care staff, and mainstream religious workers, with the aim of providing a better quality of end-of-life and death, is beneficial in a super-aged society.
Purpose: It is important to prevent sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly adults. Thus, we investigated the relationship between the swallowing function, nutritional status, and physical function in elderly outpatients.
Methods: A total of 90 elderly outpatients (77.2±8.3 years) participated in the study. The investigation items included the Seirei dysphagia screening questionnaire, 20 masticable foods questionnaire, tongue pressure, grip strength, the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), the questionnaire for sarcopenia screening (SARC-F), and the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). The odds ratio for the swallowing function and six items was determined by a logistic regression analysis.
Results: About 83.3% of the participants were at risk of dysphagia. The questions that detected the symptom in ≥30% of the participants were, "Do you cough during a meal?", "Have you become slower at eating?", and "Has it become more difficult to eat hard food?". The 20 masticable foods questionnaire, SARC-F, and MNA-SF were correlated with the Seirei dysphagia screening questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicated that SARC-F was a significant predictor for a loss of the swallowing function.
Conclusion: Because elderly outpatients have a decreased oral function, including chewing, they are at an increased risk of dysphagia. This study suggested that the swallowing function in elderly outpatients is related to the chewing ability, nutritional status, and sarcopenia. The swallowing function can thus be used to detect sarcopenia in elderly outpatients at an early stage and is important for preventing dysphagia.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of a multimodal treatment program on the muscle strength, physical function, and skeletal muscle mass in elderly diabetic patients with sarcopenia.
Methods: Diabetic patients over 65 years old attending the Department of Diabetes and Metabolism, Ise Red Cross Hospital, were included. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia 2019. The measurement of extremity skeletal muscle mass was assessed by the multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance method, muscle strength was assessed by the grip strength, and the physical function was assessed by the 5-time chair stand test. The muscle strength, physical function, extremity skeletal muscle mass, and other parameters were assessed before and after 12 weeks of the multimodal treatment program (optimization of protein intake, resistance training, and patient education on sarcopenia) and then compared. Paired t-tests were used for the statistical analysis.
Results: Fourteen patients (3 men and 11 women) were included in the analysis of this study. The mean age was 74.4±4.7 years old. Significant improvements in the grip strength (male, 23.2±5.6 kg to 25.6±5.5 kg, P=0.014; female, 15.5±5.0 kg to 18.9±5.0 kg, P<0.001) and 5-time chair stand test (11.2±2.5 seconds to 8.6±1.7 seconds, P=0.002) were found with the multimodal treatment program. There was also a significant decrease in HbA1c (8.1±0.7% to 7.7±0.9%, P=0.004). However, although an increasing trend in the amount of extremity skeletal muscle mass was noted, there was no significant difference.
Conclusions: A multimodal treatment program for elderly diabetic patients with sarcopenia showed an improvement in the muscle strength and physical function.
Case: 84-year-old woman had been diagnosed hypothyroidism before, but she did not take tablets of thyroid hormone prescribed. Anorexia and decreased consciousness level were discovered by workers of the facility. Her family doctor found thyroid function abnormality as a cause, and she was introduced to our hospital to treat because the whole body condition was bad. Her physical examination was observed that JCS was 3-10. Laboratory examination showed that TSH 562.81 μIU/mL, fT4 0.40 ng/mL, pH 7.33, and Na 124 mEq/L. It was not a contradictory finding with the diagnostic criteria of mucus edema coma. Blood and peritoneal dialysis is denied, although her data indicated eGFR 8-10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Her hospitalization was long-term, but exhibited finally good clinical course. After three months of hospitalization, she was discharged from the hospital. The problems were as follows. The clear guideline of myxedema coma with end-stage renal failure state and many complications was not found. She and her family did not hope dialysis under this condition.
We treated a case of myxedema coma in a case of an elderly person with terminal renal failure who did not hope dialysis. In addition to myxedema coma as a rare disease, there are many basic diseases in the elderly. Although it was a difficult case, it is important to repeatedly confirm the explanation and the intention of the person and the family with regard to the selection of the treatment policy.
A 70-year-old woman was hospitalized for diarrhea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, and dyspnea on exertion for the past 3 weeks and treated with intravenous fluid for dehydration. She was receiving prednisolone for polymyositis. She did not have a history of thyroid disease. On day 4 of hospitalization, the patient was diagnosed with congestive heart failure and tachycardiac atrial fibrillation, and treatment with a diuretic agent was initiated. On day 7 of hospitalization, a clinical laboratory evaluation revealed that the level of free thyroxine was 9.95 ng/dL, free triiodothyronine was >30 pg/mL, and thyroid-stimulating hormone was <0.01 μU/mL, and the patient was initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis because of Graves' disease. She showed restlessness and had a fever of 39 °C, tachycardia of ≥140 beats/min, pulmonary edema, and frequent diarrhea, all of which were consistent with the symptoms of thyroid storm. Her general condition gradually improved with comprehensive treatment of thyroid storm comprising thiamazole, potassium iodide, hydrocortisone, and landiolol. A reassessment revealed that the patient had already had thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm on admission. Thyroid storm is a potentially fatal disease that must be urgently addressed; however, its symptoms are difficult to distinguish from those caused by other diseases. Furthermore, elderly individuals may not exhibit typical symptoms of thyroid storm, so the diagnosis is difficult. In this case, the diagnosis was delayed because of the absence of typical symptoms of thyroid storm and the influence of a pre-existing medical condition and medication.