Comparative study has been made histologically and micrometrically on the senile changes of the kidney between Caucasians and Japanese, and there were noticed some interesting differences in the course of ageing process of the kidney between both races 1) The weight of the kidney was larger in the Caucasians than the Japanese, and the decrease of the weight with advancing age was more marked in the Japanese. 2) Arteriosclerotic changes of the arteries of middle and smaller caliber in the kidney increased in grade with age, and the increase was more marked and appeared earlier in the Japanese, but arteriolosclerosis was not increased in grade parallel with advancing age in both races. 3) Fibrosis and hyalinization of the renal medullae tended to increase with advancing age, more markedly in the Japanese. 4) Glomeruli of the kidney were larger in size in the Caucasians than the Japanese, and decreased in size with age only in the Japanese. 5) The cell number in the glomerular tuft was slightly fewer in the Japanese, and decreased with age in both races. 6) The renal parenchymal cells were considered to be larger in size in the Caucasians than the Japanese. The decrease in cell number with age began earlier in the Japanese. 7) The nuclei of the renal epithelial cells were also larger in size in the Caucasians, but there was observed no significant decrease with age in both races. 8) The senile changes of the kidney were not necessarily related to the arteriosclerotic changes, and were also considered to be essentially same between two races. The process of senile changes in the kidney has been discussed with special consideration to the difference between two races.
Pathomorphological and micromeasuring studies on the liver tissues of 231 Japanese and 214 Caucasians autopsy cases of ages ranging from 14 to 96 years, revealed that the senile atrophy of the liver was mainly due to decrease in number of the parenchymal cells and there were some interesting differences between Japanese and Caucasians in the process of senile atrophy of the organ and of decrease in number of the cells. Weight of the liver was larger in the Caucasians than the Japanese. The parenchymal cells of the liver in Caucasians were larger in size than those in the Japanese, and in both races the hepatic cells did not decrease in volume with age but rather seemed to increase in size. The hepatic cell nuclei were also larger in size in the Caucasians, but an increase in their volume with age was somewhat more marked in the Japanese. Decrease in weight of the liver and in number of the hepatic cells was noted to appear earlier in the aging process in Caucasians than in Japanese, but in the later stage of the aging, the decrease was more gradual in Caucasians. In Japanese, binucleate hepatic cells increased in number with advancing age, reaching the maximum value in the seventh decade and then decreased, while in the Caucasians their change with age was less marked and the peak was deviated about ten years younger. On the difference in the appearances of the senile changes between two races, their can not be denied the difference in hereditary conditions, but nutritional, environmental conditions were considered to play an important part.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate potentiality of the patients with recurrent cerebrovascular accidents. The case material in the present series was based on patients seen at Harunaso Hospital from 1967 to April 1969. In a series of 278 cases of stroke, there were 74 cases who had recurrent cerebrovascular accidents. Analysies of these cases were as follows: 1) Sex distribution: There were 33 men and 41 women. 2) Classification of recurrence: a. Bilateral hemiplegia due to 2 separate cerebrovascular accidents was 40 cases. b. Recurrent ipsilateral hemiplegia was 16 cases. c. Subclinical type was 8 cases... d. Sudden death and subacute death type were 10 cases. 3) Results of rehabilitation in 74 patients: Unfortunately, bed-side exercise and nursing were rarely useful for functional improvement of these patients, especially the patients with pseudobulbal palsy symptoms showed poor potentiality for rehabilitation. Yet it was suggestible that general facilitation procedures contributed to the rehabilitation of the eldery recurrent stroke patients. 4) Analysis of the autopsy finding: It was concluded that lesions of subclinical patients were almost in cortex and subcortex of nondominant hemisphere. The most hazardous complication of the cases was bronchopneumonia.
de Duve and his collaborators have presented the evidence that a number of previously-inactive enzymes become activated probably due to release from the intracellular particles called “lysosome”. Thereafter, attention has been made to the apparent corelation between the disruption or increased permeability of lysosomal membrane and several pathological states such as metabolic disorders, refractory shock, or aging, The purpose of this communication is to describe whether ther is any cogent relationship between lysosomal enzyme activity and aging process of liver in human beings or some animals, or not. Quickly-excised liver samples of mouse, hamster, or guinea-pig were homogenized with a Tefron glass homogenizer in cold 0.25M. sucrose csolution containing 0.01M. tris buffer (pH 7.5). The acid RNase activity of both supernatant (S) and precipitate (P) fractions obtained by 27, 000G centrifugation were measured. The liver tissue samples were also obtained from twenty-three surgical patients who were operated for uncomplicated gastro-duodenal or gall bladder diseases. The age distribution of these patients were from 26 to 85 years old, and no patients showed any abnormal liver function preoperatively. The acid RNase and beta-glucuronidase activities of human liver samples were also measured by almost the same procedures with animal experiment. The change in the location of lysosomal enzymes was shown by changes in ratio of activity of (S) to (P) fraction (S:P Ratio). As a result, the remarkable increase of acid RNase activity in supernatant fraction compared to that in the particulate fraction of liver, was recognized in mouse, hamster, and human being with advancing age, whereas the change of total activity of the enzyme was almost negligible. S:P ratio of both beta-glucuronidase in human liver and acid RNase in guinea-pig did not show any cogent increase with aging. The foregoing results were discussed with special reference to our previous communication presenting that the RNA contents in human liver decrese with aging.
Effect of peroral administration of clofibrate on the platelet aggregation was investigated by using Chandler's rotating tube method in relation to the levels of serum cholesterol and the following results were obtained: the administration of clofibrate reduced significantly the elevated aggregation activity of platelets and serum cholesterol levels in the rabbits fed with lanolin. Cessation of lanolin feeding make the effect of clofibrate on both the serum cholesterol levels anp aggregation activity of platelets more marked. In these animals, however, there was no significant correlation between the serum cholesterol levels and aggregation activity of platelets.
Weight, specific gravity, cortical thickness, breaking strength, and bending against constant load were measured in the femur and tibia of rats of various age and those maintained on low calcium and low protein diet to produce mineral and matrix osteoporosis. The breaking strength increased as the animal aged but the bending against constant load decreased. Both low calcium and low protein diet caused marked atrophy of the bone but an increase of the bending against constant load was seen only in mineral osteoporosis. Thyrocalcitonin mainly increased bone specific gravity and cortical thickness, whereas valine increased breaking strength and cortical thickness. Although both of these agents showed some effect on experimental osteoporosis, the results were far from being satisfactory. The complex nature of osteoporosis should always be taken into consideration in experimental and clinical studies.
The activity of plasma lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) was measured in the patients of nephrotic syndrome and in the rats of experimental nephrotic syndrome provoked by anti-kidney serum in order to evaluate the mechanism of hypercholesterolemia in this disease. The activity was measured as the rate of decrease in free cholesterol for 24 hours obtained under incubation of the plasma. The values in nephrotic group were markedly lower than in control. The net value of esterified cholesterol in one ml of plasma for one hour, however, showed little change or slight increase in nephrotic group. Experimental results in which the effects of high level of plasma cholesterol in substrate were avoided by using the inactivated and cholesterol-4-14C labeled normal human plasma as substrate, showed that the values of esterified cholesterol in nephrotic group were almost the same as or slightly higher than in normal group. Free cholesterol increased markedly after injection of anti-kidney serum but cholesterol ester increased less markedly although the plasma LCAT activity remained almost unchanged or increased only slightly, the activity was considered as relatively deficient in nephroticsyndrome. This result is in agreement with a recent report by McKensie that the turnover rate of cholesterol ester is increased although the turnover time is prolonged in nephrotic syndrome and this evidence is considered to be one of the factors for hypercholesterolemia in this disease.
Thyrocalcitonin (TC) exerts its hypocalcemic effect by an action on bone. The mode of action of TC has been extensively studied both in vivo and in vitro and there is now a substantial evidence that TC inhibits bone resorption. Since it has been shown that TC is also effective in man, it would be logical to expect the effect of TC in the treatment of osteoporosis which is characterized by increased bone resorption. We have produced experimental osteoporosis in rats by feeding low calcium diet and studied the effect of TC in these animals by analysing the ash weight and histological findings of the femur, tibia, humerus and tail bones. When rats were fed low calcium diet for 3 weeks, there was a marked decrease in the ash content of the bones together with the thinning of the cortex. Simultaneous administration of thyrocalcitonin did not prevent these changes except for the tail bones. The ash content and density of the tail bones in the TC-treated rats were apparently larger than those in the non-treated animals. Subsequently therapeutic effect of TC was studied by the administration of TC to osteoporotic rats. Again, it was found that TC did not improve the decreased ash content of the femur, tibia and humerus except for the tail bones. In conclusion, TC showed a small effect in the treatment of experimental osteoporosis in rats.