As an approach to general evaluation of results of multiple health examination, “expected age” was employed. The expected age, which is the so-called “biological age”, is a hypothetical parameter computed mathematically on the basis of actual test results. The subjects observed were 425 apparently healthy males who were admitted to the Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases for health examination. Out of more than 90 routine tests, 10 tests were finally selected on a partial correlation analysis and a trial-and-error method. The multiple regression coefficients of these tests on age were estimated and a numerical formula for the expected age was established. The formula was applied to 159 normal subjects aged 40 years and over. The mean expected age was 56.32 years and the variance of the difference between the expected age and the calender age was 21.35 Then, the expected ages computed on a group basis of cases with diseases, hypertension, hepatic dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, coronary insufficiency and hypercholesteremia, were compared with calendar ages. The mean expected age was 5-8 years older than the mean calendar age, and in the hypertensives with complications, the difference exceeded 10 years. In order to evaluate a diagnostic practicability of the formula on an individual basis, cases of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, etc. were numerically set up and the formula was applied to them. The expected age thus computed indicated formula's high sensitivity in detecting even mild abnormalities.
The comparative effect of chondroitin sulfate isomers (CS) on anticoagulation was studied by measuring prothrombin time and thrombelastograph in relation to atherogenesis. The comparison was made between the difference of the isomer, molecular weight and sulfur content of chondroitin sulfate. Electrocardiographic changes by the single intravenous injection of CS to atherosclerotic subjects were also investigated. i) Prothrombin time was prolonged by addition of CS to the blood in vitro More prolonged prothrombin time was shown in CS-C than in CS-A. ii) The CS of higher molecular weight (20, 000) prolonged prothrombin time more than the CS of lower molecular weight (4, 000) in CS-C. iii) Studies on thrombelastogram showed the prolongation of r and K and the shortening of ma and mω by addition of CS in vivo and in vitro. CS-B possesses more marked anti-coagulant effect than CS-C and CS-A. iv) When CS-C was injected intravenously into rabbits at the rate of 180mg/kg of body weight, the prolongation of r, r+K and the decrease of ma and mε were observed immediately after the administration. These effects showed the maximum at 30-120min and continued 24 hours. v) In electrocardiogram ST and T depressions were improved in 30% of 32 coronary sclerotic patients following the single intravenous administration of CS-C at 10-20mg/kg of body weight.
The inhibitory effect of estrogens on the development of immobilization osteoporosis in rat was studied through the analysis of calcium and hydroxyproline content of the femur and tibia, and the measurement of cortical thickness of the femurs. In 6 weeks old rat, immobilization of the right hind limb through the application of a plaster cast for 6 weeks caused a marked decrease in the calcium content of the femur and the hydroxyproline content of the tibia. This decrease, however, was significantly inhibited by the simultaneous oral administration of 100μg of conjugated estrogens. Furthermore, administration of conjugated estrogens significantly protected against the decrease in the bone density and the cortical thickness of the femurs of the immobilized limbs of rats. In 6 month old rats, immobilization of the right hind limb for 8 weeks had no effect. However, after ovariectomy immobilization caused a significant decrease in both calcium and hydroxyproline content of the bones and the cortical thickness of the femurs. Furthermore, these changes were significantly inhibited by the simultaneous administration of conjugated estrogen. It is concluded that conjugated estrogens diminished effect of immobilization on the development of osteoporosis in rat.
Comparative micromeasuring studies have been made on the senile changes of various kinds of muscle tissues. Albino rats of the Wistar and Donryu strains of 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of age were used in this experiment, and M. tibialis anterior and M. psoas major were used as skeletal muscle and the muscle layer of the aorta as smooth muscle. Differentiation between white and red muscle fibers of the skeletal muscle was made with Sudan black B staining. In rats of 24 months of age, the skeletal muscles were decreased in weight, and the weight loss of the skeletal muscle was far more marked than that of the body weight of the animals. The decrease in weight of the skeletal muscle in the aged rats was observed to be due to decrease in number and in volume of the muscle fibers; in case of the white fibers, the senile decrease was due mainly to a decrease in volume and not to decrease in number, on the contrary, in case of the senile change of the red fibers, there was noticed a marked decrease in number of the fiber without decrease in volume. These differences in the decrease in number and volume of the two kinds of muscle fibers were statistically significant. In the muscle layer of the aorta of aged rats, the muscle cells were not atrophic but rather hypertrophic and showed no decrease in number of the cells. Some discussions have been made on the difference in the process of senile changes of various kinds of muscle cells, with special references to their morphology and function.