Hordeum vulgare, cultivated barley, and its wild relative, H. chilense, have several important traits that might be useful for wheat improvement. Here, in situ hybridization and barley expressed sequence tag (EST) markers were used to characterize and compare the chromosomes of H. chilense with those of H. vulgare. FISH with four repetitive DNA sequences, AG, AAG, 5S rDNA and 45S rDNA, was applied to the mitotic chromosomes of H. vulgare, H. chilense and available wheat-H. chilense addition and substitution lines. FISH with the AAG repeat differentiated the individual chromosomes of H. chilense and H. vulgare. The patterns of FISH signals in the two species differed greatly. The 45S rDNA signals were observed on two pairs of chromosomes in both species, while the 5S rDNA signals were observed on four pairs of chromosomes in H. vulgare and on one pair in H. chilense. The AG repeat showed FISH signals at the centromeric regions of all chromosomes of H. vulgare but none of the chromosomes of H. chilense. These results indicate that the chromosomes of the two species are highly differentiated. To study the homoeology between the two species, 209 EST markers of H. vulgare were allocated to individual chromosomes of H. chilense. One hundred and forty of the EST markers were allocated to respective chromosomes of H. chilense using the wheat-H. chilense addition and substitution lines. Twenty-six EST markers on average were allocated to each chromosome except to the chromosome 2HchS, to which only 10 markers were allocated. Ninety percent of the allocated EST markers in H. chilense were placed on H. vulgare chromosomes of the same homo-eologous group, indicating that the expressed sequences of the two species were highly conserved. These EST markers would be useful for detecting chromatin introgressed from these species into the wheat genome.
p-SINE1 was the first plant SINE element identified in the Waxy gene in Oryza sativa, and since then a large number of p-SINE1-family members have been identified from rice species with the AA or non-AA genome. In this paper, we report two new rice SINE elements, designated p-SINE2 and p-SINE3, which form distinct families from that of p-SINE1. Each of the two new elements is significantly homologous to p-SINE1 in their 5’-end regions with that of the polymerase III promoter (A box and B box), but not significantly homologous in the 3’-end regions, although they all have a T-rich tail at the 3’ terminus. Despite the three elements sharing minimal homology in their 3’-end regions, the deduced RNA secondary structures of p-SINE1, p-SINE2 and p-SINE3 were found to be similar to one another, such that a stem-loop structure seen in the 3’-end region of each element is well conserved, suggesting that the structure has an important role on the p-SINE retroposition. These findings suggest that the three p-SINE elements originated from a common ancestor. Similar to members of the p-SINE1 family, the members of p-SINE2 or p-SINE3 are almost randomly dispersed in each of the 12 rice chromosomes, but appear to be preferentially inserted into gene-rich regions. The p-SINE2 members were present at respective loci not only in the strains of the species with the AA genome in the O. sativa complex, but also in those of other species with the BB, CC, DD, or EE genome in the O. officinalis complex. The p-SINE3 members were, however, only present in strains of species in the O. sativa complex. These findings suggest that p-SINE2 originated in an ancestral species with the AA, BB, CC, DD and EE genomes, like p-SINE1, whereas p-SINE3 originated in an ancestral strain of the species with the AA genome. The nucleotide sequences of p-SINE1 members are more divergent than those of p-SINE2 or p-SINE3, indicating that p-SINE1 is likely to be older than p-SINE2 and p-SINE3. This suggests that p-SINE2 and p-SINE3 have been derived from p-SINE1.
This study examines the relationship between DNA sequence variation and level of gene expression in four metallothionein genes from wild rice Oryza rufipogon. The nucleotide diversity was 0.0028 to 0.0117 over the entire coding and non-coding region, and it was negatively correlated with gene expression for three type 2 metallothionein genes. In contrast, codon bias and percent of preferred codons correlated positively with gene expression. These results indicate that the intensity of natural selection depends on the level of gene expression, which in turn shapes the level of nucleotide polymorphism. In addition, significant linkage disequilibria were frequent between the metallothionein genes, although significance was not confirmed after multiple test correction. This result suggests that metallothionein genes expressed at different levels are epistatic with respect to fitness, and that gene expression is an important factor determining level of DNA polymorphism.
The cold acclimation process in plants is primarily regulated through the signal transduction pathways that lead to the induction and enhancement of expression of different sets of Cor/Lea genes. Winter wheat ‘Mironovskaya 808’ (M808) exhibited a much higher level of freezing tolerance than spring wheat ‘Chinese Spring’ (CS), and the difference became clearer after the long-term cold acclimation. To understand the molecular basis of this cultivar difference, we isolated two CBF/DREB1 homologs, Wcbf2, which are the candidate gene for a transcription factor of the Cor/Lea genes. Expression of the Wcbf2 gene was induced rapidly by low temperature (LT) and drought but not by abscisic acid (ABA). The gene expression was temporal and at least twice up-regulated by LT. The first up-regulation occurred within 1–4 h, which might correspond to the rapid response to LT, while the second up-regulation occurred during 2–3 weeks of cold acclimation. After the second up-regulation, the amount of Wcbf2 transcript greatly decreased in CS, while it increased again in M808 after 4 weeks until 9 weeks (end of the test period). The maintenance of this high level of the Wcbf2 transcript might represent the long-term effect of cold acclimation. The activation of Cor/Lea genes followed the accumulation of Wcbf2 transcript suggested direct involvement of the Wcbf2 gene in the induction and enhancement of the Cor/Lea gene expression. The cultivar difference in freezing tolerance developed during different stages of cold acclimation can be at least partly explained by the differential and coordinated regulation of the predicted Cor/Lea gene signal transduction pathway that is mediated by the CBF/DREB1 transcription factors in common wheat.
The genetic variations of Lycoris radiata var. radiata, a completely sterile triploid from Japan, were examined by comparing the nucleotide sequences of genomic DNA regions in 11 triploid strains sampled from Japan and four triploid strains sampled from China, and in two diploid strains of Lycoris radiata var. pumila, which is endemic to China and fertile. For this purpose, two genes were analyzed, the lectin gene in the nuclear genome and the maturase gene in the chloroplast genome. A clear genetic constancy was observed in their DNA nucleotide sequences. For both genes, completely identical nucleotide sequences were detected in the 11 Japanese and four Chinese triploid strains and also between the two Chinese diploid strains. However, some genetic variations were observed between the Japanese and Chinese triploid strains, and between the triploid and diploid strains. These results are consistent with the findings obtained from previous chromosome karyotype analyses and allozyme analyses. In addition, in our preliminary FISH analysis of the physical mapping of the rRNA gene family, the 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA and 5S rRNA loci were localized on six and four chromosomes, respectively. Regarding the 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA loci, two were associated with two SAT chromosomes. The remaining four were distinguished by having no secondary constriction. Localization of 5S rRNA loci to chromosome spreads revealed three sites on the proximal part of the long arm of three acrocentric chromosomes and one site on the distal part of the long arm of the SAT chromosome; the latter site was juxtaposed to the 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA loci. These findings indicate that L. radiata var. radiata is not a typical autotriploid. The present paper discusses the possible origin of L. radiata var. radiata from a diploid variety of L. radiata var. pumila, based on the molecular cytogenetic analysis and DNA sequence analysis.
The complete nucleotide sequence (21,359 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA of the rhacophorid frog Rhacophorus schlegelii was determined. The gene content, nucleotide composition, and codon usage of this genome corresponded to those typical of vertebrates. However, the Rh. schlegelii genome was unusually large due to the inclusion of two control regions and the accumulation of lengthy repetitive sequences in these regions. The two control regions had 97% sequence similarity over 1,510 bp, suggesting the occurrence of concerted sequence evolution. Comparison of the gene organizations among anuran species revealed that the mitochondrial gene arrangement of Rh. schlegelii diverged from that of typical vertebrates but was similar to that of Buergeria buergeri. The positions of the tRNA-Leu(CUN) and tRNA-Thr genes were exchanged between Rh. schlegelii and B. buergeri. Based on parsimonious consideration and the basal phylogenetic position of B. buergeri, these genes seemed to have been rearranged in an ancestral lineage leading to Rh. schlegelii.
Nucleotide sequences of nine 5’ upstream gene regions for human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan were determined. We estimated nucleotide differences (d) for each region between human and great apes. The overall d was 0.027 (ranged from 0.004 to 0.052). Rates of nucleotide substitution were estimated by using d and divergence times of human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. The overall rate of nucleotide substitution between human and other hominoids was estimated to be 0.52–0.85 × 10–9. This rate in 5’ upstream regions was lower than that of synonymous sites, suggesting that 5’ upstream regions have evolved under some functional constraints. Because lower rates have been reported for coding sequences in primates compared to rodents, we also estimated the rate (1.17–1.76 × 10–9) of nucleotide substitutions for the corresponding 5’ upstream regions in rodents (mouse/rat comparison). Thus the primate rate was lower than rodent rate also for the 5’ upstream regions.
Amphioxus is a crucial organism for the study of vertebrate evolution. Although a genomic BAC library of Branchiostoma floridae has been constructed, we report here another BAC library construction of its distant relative species Branchiostoma belcheri. The amphioxus BAC library established in present study consists of 45,312 clones arrayed in one hundred and eighteen 384-well plates. The average insert fragment size was 120 kb estimated by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of 318 randomly selected clones. The representation of the library is about 12 equivalent to the genome, allowing a 99.9995% probability of recovering any specific sequence of interest. We further screened the library with 4 single copied Amphi-Pax genes and identified total of 26 positive clones with average of 6.5 clones for each gene. The result indicates this library is well suited for many applications and should also serve as a useful complemental resource for the scientific community.
Wrong:The following sentence should be added to the acknowledgments on page 23, left column, second paragraph.
Right:We thank Dr. Kiyoshi Onai for the gift of plasmid pT7Blue-T/luxAB, and Dr. Kazuhisa Okamoto for improving automated bioluminescence monitoring system.