In flowering plants, success or failure of seed development is determined by various genetic mechanisms. During sexual reproduction, double fertilization produces the embryo and endosperm, which both contain maternally and paternally derived genomes. In endosperm, a reproductive barrier is often observed in inter-specific crosses. Endosperm is a tissue that provides nourishment for the embryo within the seed, in a similar fashion to the placenta of mammals, and for the young seedling after germination. This review considers the relationship between the reproductive barrier in endosperm and genomic imprinting. Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism that results in mono-allelic gene expression that is parent-of-origin dependent. In Arabidopsis, recent studies of several imprinted gene loci have identified the epigenetic mechanisms that determine genomic imprinting. A crucial feature of genomic imprinting is that the maternally and paternally derived imprinted genes must carry some form of differential mark, usually DNA methylation and/or histone modification. Although the epigenetic marks should be complementary on maternally and paternally imprinted genes within a single species, it is possible that neither the patterns of epigenetic marks nor expression of imprinted genes are the same in different species. Moreover, in hybrid endosperm, the regulation of expression of imprinted genes can be affected by upstream regulatory mechanisms in the male and female gametophytes. Species-specific variations in epigenetic marks, the copy number of imprinted genes, and the epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes in hybrids might all play a role in the reproductive barriers observed in the endosperm of interspecific and interploidy crosses. These predicted molecular mechanisms might be related to earlier models such as the “endosperm balance number” (EBN) and “polar nuclei activation” (PNA) hypotheses.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic disease causing meningitis, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an etiological agent of TBE. From an analysis of five distinct sequences of Japanese TBEV, it has been proposed that Japanese TBEV was transmitted from Russia to Japan on just a single occasion 260–430 years ago. Here thirteen distinct nucleotide sequences encoding the entire region of the envelope protein for Japanese TBEV were analyzed. It is shown, from the phylogenetic analysis, that Japanese TBEV belongs to the Far Eastern subtype, which is known to be highly pathogenic. Japanese TBEV was divided into three groups, and TBEV was inferred to have been transmitted between Japan and Russia at least three times, which were estimated to have occurred several hundred years ago. These results indicate that TBEV has not only been endemic but also transmitted multiple times to Japan.
In Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the stability of Ti plasmids differs depending on the strain. So far, little is known about genes that cause the difference in stability. The repABC operon is responsible for replication and incompatibility of Ti plasmids. We constructed recombinant plasmids carrying the repABC operon and different portions of pTi-SAKURA. Cells having the recombinant plasmids that harbored a 2.6-kbp NheI fragment of pTi-SAKURA were found to be transformed via conjugation 100-fold less frequently with a small incompatible repABC plasmid than cells having the recombinant plasmids lacking the 2.6-kbp NheI fragment. Since the phenomenon occurred only when the resident and incoming plasmids belonged to the same incompatibility group, it was suggested that the 2.6-kbp NheI fragment bears the potential enhancing incompatibility. The fragment contained an operon consisting of two open reading frames, tiorf24 and tiorf25. tiorf24 is an orphan gene, whereas tiorf25 is a homologue of a group of plasmid stability genes. Removal of the 2.6-kbp fragment from the resident pTi-SAKURA increased the resident plasmid ejection ratio by the incoming repABC plasmid, whereas addition of the fragment to pTiC58 decreased the ejection ratio, and the loss ratio during growth at 37°C. These data suggest that tiorf24 and tiorf25 are responsible for the stability of pTi-SAKURA, and reduce, in the host bacterium, the frequency of ejection of the resident plasmid, presumably through an incompatibility mechanism.
Some point mutations in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confer resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in weeds. To clarify the evolution of the herbicide resistance of Monochoria vaginalis, a weed in rice fields in Japan, the nucleotide sequences of four genes encoding ALS were surveyed in five sulfonylurea-resistant (SU-R) and five sulfonylurea-susceptible (SU-S) biotypes. In the ALS1 gene, two SU-R biotypes showed nucleotide substitutions changing Pro197 to Ser and Leu, respectively. In a different gene, ALS3, three other SU-R biotypes showed either of the two nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions seen in ALS1. Only two biotypes geographically located distantly from each other shared the same mutation conferring SU resistance in the same gene. These patterns of nucleotide substitutions indicate that the SU-R phenotype was acquired independently by different biotypes. Nucleotide diversity values of the genes showing SU-R mutations were higher than those of ALS2 lacking any SU-R mutation and of a putative pseudogene, ALS4. This result suggests that the maintenance of nucleotide variability within target genes provides an opportunity for the evolution of SU-R phenotypes by herbicide-driven selection for mutations conferring resistance.
Oryza rufipogon, the progenitor of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa, is known by its wide intraspecific variation. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analyses of O. rufipogon strains and their relationships to O. sativa strains by using 26 newly identified p-SINE1 members from O. rufipogon strains, in addition to 23 members previously identified from O. sativa strains. A total of 103 strains of O. rufipogon and O. sativa were examined for the presence and absence of each of the p-SINE1 members at respective loci by PCR with a pair of primers that hybridize to the regions flanking each p-SINE1 member. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of the insertion polymorphism of p-SINE1 members showed that O. rufipogon and O. sativa strains are classified into three groups. The first group consisted of O. rufipogon perennial strains mostly from China and O. sativa ssp. japonica strains, which included javanica strains forming a distinct subgroup. The second group consisted of almost all the O. rufipogon annual strains, a few O. rufipogon perennial strains and O. sativa ssp. indica strains. These groupings, in addition to other results, support the previous notion that annual O. rufipogon originated in the O. rufipogon perennial population, and that O. sativa originated polyphyletically in the O. rufipogon populations. The third group consisted of the other perennial strains and intermediate-type strains of O. rufipogon, in which the intermediate-type strains are most closely related to a hypothetical ancestor with no p-SINE1 members at the respective loci and to those belonging to the other rice species with the AA genome. This suggests that O. rufipogon perennial strains are likely to have originated from the O. rufipogon intermediate-ecotype population.
Mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase responsible for cyanide-insensitive and salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration in plants. AOX is a key enzyme of the alternative respiration pathway. To study the effects of necrotic cell death on the mitochondrial function, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), respiration capacities and accumulation patterns of mitochondria-targeted protein-encoding gene transcripts were compared between wild-type, lesion-mimic mutant and hybrid necrosis wheat plants. Around cells with the necrosis symptom, ROS accumulated abundantly in the intercellular spaces. The ratio of the alternative pathway to the cytochrome pathway was markedly enhanced in the necrotic leaves. Transcripts of a wheat AOX gene, Waox1a, were more abundant in a novel lesion-mimic mutant of common wheat than in the wild-type plants. An increased level of the Waox1a transcripts was also observed in hybrid plants containing Ne1 and Ne2 genes. These results indicated that an increase of the wheat AOX transcript level resulted in enhancement of respiration capacity of the alternative pathway in the necrotic cells.
Haploid induction of wheat by crossing with Imperata cylindrica pollen is an efficient method for doubled haploid breeding. We investigated the process of wheat haploid formation after crossing with I. cylindrica. Our cytological observations of zygotes showed the successful fertilization of parental gametes. Wheat haploids were formed by complete elimination of I. cylindrica chromosomes. Missegregation of I. cylindrica chromosomes was observed in the first cell division of zygote. At metaphase I. cylindrica chromosomes did not congress onto the equatorial plate. The sister chromosomes did not move toward the poles during anaphase, though their cohesion was released normally. I. cylindrica chromosomes were still in the cytoplasm at telophase and eliminated from daughter nuclei. After two-celled stage, we could find no I. cylindrica chromosome in the nuclei but micronuclei containing I. cylindrica chromatin in the cytoplasm. These observations indicate that I. cylindrica chromosomes are completely eliminated from nuclei in the first cell division probably due to lack of functional kinetochores.
The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, has strict food preferences and grows by feeding on mulberry leaves. However, “Sawa-J”, an abnormal feeding habit strain selected from the genetic stock, feeds on an artificial diet without mulberry leaf powder. In this study, the food preference gene in Sawa-J was genetically identified using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of a cDNA clone on each linkage group. Taking advantage of a lack of genetic recombination in females, reciprocal backcrossed F1 (BC1) progenies were independently prepared using a non-feeding strain, C108, as a mating partner of Sawa-J. Our results of linkage analysis and mapping proved that the feeding behavior is primarily controlled by a major recessive gene mapped at 20.2 cM on RFLP linkage group 9 (RFLG9), and clone e73 at a distance of 4.2 cM was found as the first linked molecular marker.
The chromosomes of Argopecten irradians irradians were studied by various cytogenetic approaches. Conventional chromosome characterization built on C-banding, DAPI-staining, and silver staining was complemented by the physical mapping of ribosomal DNA and telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n by FISH. Results showed that the constitutive heterochromatin revealed by C-banding was mainly distributed at telomeric and centromeric regions. However, interstitial C-bands were also observed. The pattern of DAPI banding was almost consistent with that of C-banding. Silver staining revealed that NORs were located on the short arms of chromosome 3 and 10, and this was further confirmed by FISH using 18S-28S rDNA. 5S rDNA was mapped as two distinguishable loci on the long arm of chromosome 11. 18S-28S and 5S rDNA were located on different chromosomes by sequential FISH. FISH also showed that the vertebrate telomeric sequence (TTAGGG)n was located on both ends of each chromosome and no interstitial signals were detected. Sequential 18S-28S rDNA and (TTAGGG)n FISH demonstrated that repeated units of the two multicopy families were closely associated on the same chromosome pair.
Imprinted genes are expressed monoallelically depending on their parental origin, and escape the Mendel’s laws of heredity. They play important roles in the mammalian development, growth, and behavior. Placenta is a key tissue for the normal development and growth of fetus. It is also used to illuminate the evolution of genomic imprinting. In this study, we cloned the porcine GATM and PEG10 genes. Somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP) and porcine radiation hybrid (IMpRH) panel were employed to locate GATM and PEG10 genes to SSC1q12-21 and SSC9p13-21, respectively. By sequencing PCR products, we detected several cSNPs in the two genes. The BseLI (GATM) and TaqI (PEG10) polymorphisms were used to investigate the allele frequencies in different pig breeds and the imprinting status in porcine placentas on days 75 and 90 of gestation. The results showed that for the GATMBseLI polymorphism, the Yorkshire and Duroc pigs had higher allele frequencies at the G allele, whereas the local pigs had higher allele frequencies at the A allele. Expression and sequencing analyses showed that both alleles were expressed for the GATM gene, indicating the GATM was not imprinted in the porcine placentas on days 75 and 90 of gestation. The allele frequencies of TaqI polymorphism for PEG10 gene were significantly different in native Chinese Erhualian breed comparing to Yorkshire. PEG10 was monoallelically expressed, showing the PEG10 gene may be imprinted in porcine placentas on days 75 and 90 of gestation.
Wrong:The second to fifth sentences in the third paragraph of DISCUSSION on page 261 included several errors
Right:The multiple addition line S227 that fulfilled this condition had a red outer scale. However, the outer scales of U138 and U83 that did not fulfill the prerequisite condition also turned red.