Living organisms are divided into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Whereas Bacteria and Archaea are both prokaryotes, proteins involved in information processes; replication, transcription, and translation, are more similar in Archaea and Eukarya. Here the history of the research on archaeal DNA replication is summarized and the future of the field is discussed.
Chromosome mutations occur in common wheat carrying a monosome of gametocidal (Gc) chromosomes 2C and 3CSAT. These Gc chromosomes have been known to induce chromosomal breakage in a rye chromosome 1R added to common wheat. We attempted to introduce the two Gc chromosomes into the other six rye chromosome (2R to 7R) addition or substitution lines of common wheat to establish a set of chromosomal rearrangement-inducing lines for rye chromosomes. We obtained critical plants that had a pair of rye chromosomes and one Gc chromosome for 2R, 3R, 4R and 6R, and semi-critical plants that were monotelodisomic and monosomic for 5R. Chromosomal aberrations are expected to occur in the progeny of these plants. Besides we established self-fertile disomic 2C addition lines of common wheat that were disomic substitution for 3R, disomic addition for 6R, monotelodisomic for 5R, and monosomic for 7R. We can produce the critical plants of the respective rye chromosomes by crossing above lines to the respective wheat-rye disomic addition or substitution lines. During the cytological screening in this study, we found Gc-induced chromosomal aberrations for every rye chromosome. The stocks reported here can be used to produce dissection lines for each of the rye chromosomes in common wheat by the Gc system.