Genes & Genetic Systems
Online ISSN : 1880-5779
Print ISSN : 1341-7568
ISSN-L : 1341-7568
93 巻 , 1 号
選択された号の論文の8件中1~8を表示しています
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  • Ryoko Ohno, Hiroshi Teramura, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo, Shigeo Taku ...
    原稿種別: Full paper
    2018 年 93 巻 1 号 p. 1-7
    発行日: 2018/02/01
    公開日: 2018/07/13
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/01/17
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    Wheat straw is one of the major attractive resources for low-cost raw materials for renewable energy, biofuels and biochemicals. However, like other sources of lignocellulosic biomass, straw is a heterogeneous material due to its mixed origin from different tissue and cell types. Here, to examine the genotypic effects on biorefinery usage of wheat straw, straw obtained from different wheat cultivars and experimental lines was pretreated with dilute acid. Significant differences between cultivars were observed in the concentrations of glucose and toxic by-products of the liquid hydrolysates. A higher content of xylose than glucose was found in liquid hydrolysates from wheat straw, and the xylose content appeared to be affected by both environmental and genetic factors. Analysis using chromosome substitution lines of the common wheat cultivar Chinese Spring showed that chromosomes 2A and 3A from other wheat cultivars, Hope and Timstein, significantly increased the xylose content. However, no significant relationship was observed between the liquid hydrolysate xylose content and the glucose content obtained from enzymatic saccharification of the acid-insoluble residue. These results highlight the potential of wheat breeding to improve biomass-related traits in wheat straw.

  • Kanako Kawaura, Mayuko Miura, Yoko Kamei, Tatsuya M. Ikeda, Yasunari O ...
    原稿種別: Full paper
    2018 年 93 巻 1 号 p. 9-20
    発行日: 2018/02/01
    公開日: 2018/07/13
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/01/17
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    The wheat seed storage proteins gliadin and glutenin are encoded by multigenes. Gliadins are further classified into α-, γ-, δ- and ω-gliadins. Genes encoding α-gliadins belong to a large multigene family, whose members are located on the homoeologous group 6 chromosomes at the Gli-2 loci. Genes encoding other gliadins are located on the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes at the Gli-1 loci. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to characterize and profile the gliadins. The gliadins in aneuploid Chinese Spring wheat lines were then compared in this study. Gliadin proteins separated into 70 spots after 2-DE and a total of 10, 10 and 16 spots were encoded on chromosomes 6A, 6B and 6D, respectively, which suggested that they were α-gliadins. Similarly, six, three and seven spots were encoded on chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, respectively, which indicated that they were γ-gliadins. Spots that could not be assigned to chromosomes were N-terminally sequenced and were all determined to be α-gliadins or γ-gliadins. The 2-DE profiles showed that specific α-gliadin spots assigned to chromosome 6D were lost in tetrasomic chromosome 2A lines. Furthermore, western blotting against the Glia-α9 peptide, an epitope for celiac disease (CD), suggested that α-gliadins harboring the CD epitope on chromosome 6D were absent in the tetrasomic chromosome 2A lines. Systematic analysis of α-gliadins using 2-DE, quantitative RT-PCR and genomic PCR revealed that tetrasomic 2A lines carry deletion of a chromosome segment at the Gli-D2 locus. This structural alteration at the Gli-D2 locus may provide a genetic resource in breeding programs for the reduction of CD immunotoxicity.

  • Naoyuki Nakahama, Azusa Ito, Shingo Kaneko, Yu Matsuki, Yoshihisa Suya ...
    原稿種別: Short communication
    2018 年 93 巻 1 号 p. 31-35
    発行日: 2018/02/01
    公開日: 2018/07/13
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/01/17
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    Microsatellite markers were developed for the endangered orchid Calanthe izu-insularis (Orchidaceae). This species is unique to the Izu Islands in Japan. Unfortunately, its population size has decreased because of excessive collection for horticultural purposes. In addition, although natural hybridization between C. izu-insularis and C. discolor var. discolor has been reported, morphological differences between C. izu-insularis and the hybridized individuals remain unclear. Using next-generation sequencing, 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. All developed markers could amplify C. aristulifera and nine markers could amplify C. d. var. discolor, two other orchid species that are also endangered in Japan. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity at each locus were 1–6 (mean, 2.35) and 0.00–0.79 (mean, 0.30), respectively. These microsatellite markers will help conservation geneticists in their investigation of the proportion of pure C. izu-insularis individuals in the Izu Islands.

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