Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively. The three chloroplast genomes harbored 110 annotated genes, including 76 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The 45S nrDNA sequences were either 5,947 or 5,948 bp in length. Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. glabra × G. uralensis showed two types of nrDNA, while G. uralensis contained a single type. The complete 45S nrDNA sequence unit contains 18S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 26S rRNA. We identified simple sequence repeat and tandem repeat sequences. We also developed four reliable markers for analysis of Glycyrrhiza diversity authentication.
Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) function in localization, stability and translational control of their target RNAs. In this study, we identified an IMP gene (PyIMP) from Yesso scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. The complete DNA sequence of PyIMP was 22,875 bp, consisting of seventeen exons and sixteen introns. The full-length cDNA sequence was 3,293 bp, with an open reading frame of 1,776 bp, encoding 592 amino acids. PyIMP exhibited characters typical of IMPs, namely two RNA recognition motifs and four hnRNP K homology domains. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that PyIMP was universally expressed, with higher expression levels in the gonad of adult scallops, and in gastrulae and trochophore larvae at developmental stages. A synonymous mutation SNP, c.852A>G, which showed significant associations with growth traits of Yesso scallop, was identified in this gene. Scallops with the AA genotype at this locus had significantly higher trait values than those with the GG genotype for shell length, shell height, body weight, soft tissue weight and striated muscle weight (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the expression of PyIMP in AA type scallops was significantly higher than that in the GG type, implying a positive effect of PyIMP on scallop growth. PyIMP represents the first mRNA-binding protein gene characterized in mollusks, and SNP c.852A>G will be useful for a better understanding of the role of mRNA-binding proteins in bivalves and for scallop breeding.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Breast tumorigenesis encompasses both extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Among intrinsic aspects, the appearance of DNA variation can cause genetic instability, which may lead to carcinogenesis. Genome-wide association studies have found several potential breast cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in many different populations. Among these, seven (rs2046210, rs1219648, rs3817198, rs3803662, rs889312, rs10941679 and rs13281615) have been shown to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk in various populations including those very similar to the Vietnamese. Here, therefore, we have investigated the relationship between these SNPs and breast cancer risk in a Vietnamese population case-control cohort. Real-time PCR high-resolution melt analysis was performed to genotype 300 breast cancer cases and 325 healthy controls, and the association between the seven SNPs and breast cancer risk was determined by analyzing the differences in allelic and genotypic frequencies between case and control groups using R software. While five of the seven showed no association with breast cancer, there was a relationship between the other two SNPs, rs2046210 and rs3803662, and the risk of developing this disease in Vietnamese women. The A allele is the risk allele for both rs2046210 (OR [95% CI] = 1.43 [1.14 – 1.78], P = 0.0015) and rs3803662 (OR [95% CI] = 1.45 [1.16 – 1.83], P = 0.001). We conclude that two polymorphisms, rs2046210 in ESR1 and rs3803662 in TNRC9, are associated with breast cancer risk in the Vietnamese population.
In this study, we investigated the chromosome breakage caused by gametocidal (Gc) chromosome 3Ct and its interaction with the suppressor gene Igc1 (inhibitor of gametocidal gene 1) on wheat chromosome 3B. We demonstrated cytologically that patterns of 3Ct-induced chromosomal fragmentation in microspores differed from patterns observed for other Gc genes. Uninuclear microspores of the monosomic 3Ct addition line had high frequencies of micronuclei, possibly explaining its low fertility. Chromosome fragmentation was observed in prometaphase and metaphase of the first pollen mitosis in the monosomic 3Ct addition line. Patterns of chromosome fragmentation were different from those previously reported for Gc chromosomes 2S of Aegilops speltoides, 4Ssh of Ae. sharonensis and 2Ccy of Ae. cylindrica; many chromosome fragments were observed in prometaphase of the first pollen mitosis in the monosomic 3Ct addition plants. In anthers at the binuclear stage, many microspores at the uninuclear stage coexisted with normally developed microspores.
In many animal species, females choose potential mating partners according to their own preferences. Thus, female preference-based mate choice affects intraspecific mating success and prevents interspecific mating. To clarify the neuronal basis of female mate choice, it is essential to identify the important relevant sensory cues. In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, the courtship song of males promotes female sexual receptivity. When wild-type virgin females can freely choose one of two types of courting males (winged or wingless males), they prefer to mate with winged males. Here, we report a crucial sensory cue relevant to this female mate choice. In a female choice test, female receptivity toward winged and wingless males was markedly reduced when females had auditory impairments, although females with visual or olfactory impairments showed normal receptivity similar to wild-type females. However, females with visual impairments did not show clear mate preference toward winged males. Thus, these findings suggest that females utilize visual cues in mate choice between winged and wingless males in Drosophila.