The most important challenge in automotive industries is to reduce global warming CO2 generation substantially to Zero. Electrification is the main trend to achieve this objective, such as EV, FCV and PHEV. Polymer materials are expected to contribute to this aspect as functional materials e.g. high thermal conductive electrical insulator. Vehicle weight reduction is the big factor to reduce vehicle running energy consumption. Module construction and component integration are quite effective for this purpose. CFRP is expected to contribute weight reduction for the future automotive application. Rubber components are also required weight reduction and demands for low running resistance tire is increasing. New application of polymer materials will be widely expected for the next generation automotive.
Since sporting shoes are one of the most important gears for performance enhancement and injury prevention. A wide variety of shoes have been developed and these functions change corresponding to not only usage environments but also users’ performance. For instance, in the designing process of running shoes for recreational runners, functions related to injury prevention, cushioning and stability are the most important factors. In order to meet various requirements, 8 requirement functions, cushioning, grip, flexibility, lightweight, fitting, durability, stability and breathability, can be defined as designing parameters. This paper describes the difference of designing functions between running and racing shoes. Moreover the practical designing examples of marathon shoes used in Olympic games are also introduced.
Needs for rubber materials for hydraulic hoses as seen from customers and direction of development required for future high performance are discussed. It is proposed that the direction of customer’s needs in known literature information, and further taking into consideration the recent Internet to Things technology development and economic trends, etc. In order to meet the needs, we introduced a newly developed halogen rubber based formulation method utilizing silica fillers for hoses having both flame retardancy and excellent abrasion resistance.
Many kinds of rubbers and plastics are applied to the products in railway. Railway plays an important role of public transportation; therefore, safety and reliability of these products are essential requirement. Hence, the outline of fundamental requirement of the products in railway rolling stock are described. The flame retardant and durability are substantial performances for the materials of rolling stock and the light weight of polymeric materials as compared to metal and inorganic materials is positive element for speeding up of rolling stock.
From these backgrounds, the examples of previously studied products are introduced. In the case of rubber, the long-life rubber hose is developed. An old-style rubber hose is organized by natural rubber (NR) and reinforced cotton cloth; however, NR is inferior to ozone crack resistance and strength of cotton cloth is insufficient to synthetic cloth. Therefore, the chloroprene rubber and polyester cloth are applied as alternative materials. In the case of plastic, the polycarbonate (PC) used as plastic glass becomes yellowish through weathering condition. For the longer service life provision, surface laminated PC was prepared and examined about long term stability. Developed surface laminated PC showed lower yellowish formation through weathering condition and expected longer service life.
Conveyor belts are widely used in various industrial fields as a means of conveying things that can not be carried by human power and efficiently conveying them to a remote place.
A conveyor belt is designed with appropriate material, thickness, width and length according to the conveyance conditions, and in particular, the material of the cover rubber greatly affects the life of the belt. Therefore, depending on the properties of the material to be conveyed and chute conditions, the rubber for the abrasion resistance or heat resistance or oil resistance is selected.
In recent years, in addition to the basic performance required for conveyor belts, conveyor belts that take environmental or safety into consideration have been required (e.g. Low-Rolling-Resistant, Flame-Resistant).
In this report, we introduce these products and technologies.
The rubber-brass adhesion is influenced by the chemical composition and thickness of the interfacial layer. The effects of inorganic compounds at the interface consisting of CuxS, ZnS and ZnO on the adhesion phase have been investigated.
The CuxS has been formed by the reaction between brass and sulfur, being highly non-stoichiometric. The values of x may vary between 1.0 and 2.0. There is an evolution from Cu1.8S over Cu1.93-1.97S to fully stoichiometric Cu2S.
This Cu2S is basically non-bonding because of its inability to form donor-acceptor bonds.
Although minute amount of CuxS are a prerequisite, an excess of this compound is detrimental to adhesion, as thick films are brittle and non-adherent to the brass substrate.