Electoral geography, which deals, for the most part, with the regional variations in voting behavior, has occupied one of the main field of the study on the political behavior or on the opinion. Some new ways of research have been introduced in this field and these are summarised here in reference to main and important articles of electoral geography. 1) One of the traditional view points represented by Siegfried is that the political opinion is concerned much more with the social integration of the community through the activities and influences of the social, political and economic organizations or groups. Without this point of view, quantification of each socio-economic element would not be able to clarify the complex relations between community and opinion of its residents. 2) On the other hand, the behavioral approach, represented by Cox, considers spatial elements which are important in the behavior and decision and gives its own explanation in the field of geographical studies to the modeling of voting behavior within the spatial context. But many problems remain to be solved; measuring of the network structure, the information flow and the attitude changed by the acceptance of information, tempo-spatial generalization from the results of small-scale sampling survey to large-scale voting characteristics and so on. 3) Kasperson and McPhail, for example, have recently written some interesting articles which show one of the recent trends in this field. This is the dynamic analysis of areal differentiation in voting behavior and its influence upon the political system through the electoral results. These new points of view in electoral geography within the field of political geography should introduce more of the works done in the recent accomplish ments in social geography so as to elaborate the analysis of spatial pattern in voting behavior.
The purpose of this study is to clari the diurnal variation of soil temperature at the mounta in slopes of the hill which is locally called Nihon Davos, in the Sugadaira Plateau, Nagano Prefecture. The location of five observation points and observation items are shown in Fig. 1 and Table 1, respectively. In addition to these items, soil was also sampled in two layers, from 0cm to 5cm and from 10cm to 15cm for each point. This observation was held during the period from 10 a.m. on the 4th to 9 a.m. on the 5th of June, 1977 and general weather conditions before the beginning of this observation are shown in Fig. 3. The results of this observation are summarized as follows: 1) The highest values of daily mean soil temperatures are found at the depthes of 1cm, 5cm, and 10cm on the top of the hill, but at both depthes of 20cm and 50cm on the southern slope. Mean soil temperatures at 1cm depth on both the eastern and southern slopes are nearly equal and these values show the second highest temperature. 2) The amount of soil temperature changes per hour at the depth of 1cm (ΔsT1) has a good correlation to the amount of heat exchange in the insulated vessel (ΔQ)(Fig. 9). The regression equation is expressed as follows: ΔsT1=0.064ΔQ-0.01 (r=0.93) 3) At each point, the duirnal range of soil temperature decreases exponentially from the ground surface to the depth of 20cm, but that at the depth of 50cm does not obey the regression curve (Fig. 11). 4) The thermal diffusivity (κ) decreases with increasing of soil water content (Xw) from 40% to 60% (Fig. 12). The regression equation is expressed as follows: κ=-0.10Xw+7.02 (r=0.85)