The expansion of the new transportation networks, including supper-express railroads, expressways, and the reconstruction of highways, have great influence on the competitive relations between cities. Particularly, local cities are facing urban remodeling and improved services for their hinterlands by constructing these networks. The purpose of this symposium was to make clear through studying the impact which results from the new networks, the changes in urban functions and urban spheres. The reporters were as follows: 1. FUTAGAMI, Hiromu and JITSU, Kiyotaka: Changes in urban functions along Hokuriku Expressway. 2. KITAGAWA, Kenji: Changes in urban functions along Chugoku Expressway. 3. YOKOYAMA, Shoichi and KAGAWA, Katsutoshi: Competitive relations between cities—a case of the Western Shikoku. 4. DOI, Shigehiko: Changes in transportation networks and urban system in Shikoku. 5. KONNO, Shuhei: Changes in marine transportation and port city. Through considering the reports, comments, and discussions, the organizers recognized that this symposium achieved quite good results. The following point, however, remains to be studeid: positive approach to analysis of the mechanism of influence by the new networks.
Since the 1960's rural areas in Japan have been rapidly transformed through the influence of urbanization and industrialization, which provided the increased opportunity of employment in cities. Migration of people from rural areas to urban areas as labor force has necessiated mechanization of agriculture, which in turn has accelerated depopulation of the rural areas. In extreme cases, it has become difficult to maintain community system of the settlement, particularly due to out-migration of the young. The purpose of this symposium was to examine the relationship between such changes in settlements and the processes of reorganization of areas. The reporters and their themes were as follows; (1) H. Okahashi: Changes in the mountain rural areas in northeastern Aichi Prefecture caused by the starting of factory-commuting. (2) A. Nagaoka: The effects of industrial complex development on the rural area in southern Yamagata Prefecture. (3) T. Gomi: The influence of changes in traditional irrigation systems on a rural community in central Nagano Prefecture. (4) Y. Tomatsuri: Beef cattle raising and its preventive effects on the depopulation in mountain villages in eastern Tottori Prefecture. (5) T. Miyaguchi: Changes in economic structure of mountain settlements in southern Kumamoto Prefecture caused by development of the large-scale forestry. (6) Y. Fujita: The effects of reorganization of the community-owned forests in southwestern Fukushima Prefecture. (7) T. Tanaka: The recent changes in fishing villages along the Japan Sea. Many questions and opinions were presented on the floor mainly concerning: 1) what factors caused changes in rural areas; 2) processes of the reorganization; 3) what kind of role did community play on the changes in settlements; and 4) who promoted enlargement or curtailment of businesses in agriculture and forestry.
This symposium was designed to review the present tephrochronological studies in Japan and to discuss the problems of future research. The papers presented by reporters and commentators are as follows. (1) Relationships between development of volcanoes and tephras, by Ichio MORIYA, (2) Tephrochronological study of Mt. Ontake volcano, by Takehiko KOBAYASHI, (3) Identification of tephra, by Fusao ARAI, (4) Tephrochronology of deep-sea sediments, by Toshio FURUTA and Kazuo KOBAYASHI, (5) Correlation and chronology of coastal terraces and associated sediments around Tokyo Bay in middle Pleistocene analyzed by marker-tephras, by Shigeo SUGIHARA, Fusao ARAI and Hiroshi MACHIDA, (6) The 1977 tephra of Mt. Usu volcano, by Yoshio KATSUI, (7) Some problems of tephras in Shikoku region, by Yoshio YASUDA and Hiromi MITSUSHIO, (8) Slope development with reference to tephrochronology, by Toshikazu TAMURA and Michio NOGAMI, (9) Some properties of soils of tephra origin, by Naganori YOSHINAGA, (10) Quaternary air circulation analyzed by distribution of tephra, by Masatoshi YOSHINO, (11) “Akahoya ash” in Southern Kyushu identified by determination of minor elements in ferromagnetite from tephra, by Yoshitaka NAGATOMO, (12) Forming processes of tephric soils with reference to tephrochronology, by Shigeo ASAMI. Discussions (1) Tephrochronology would be most useful for establishing eruptive history of a volcano. (2) Substantial descriptions based on petrographic and chemical determinations of most tephras in Japan are being carried out and could contribute to the finding of the wide-spread and the most important time-marker tephras. (3) Tephrochronology of deep-sea sediments will no doubt contribute to the developments of Quaternary studies on worldwide climatic history as well as on volcanism. (4) A detailed tephrochronology would provide a basis for revising and constructing geomorphological development and stratigraphy over extensive areas. (5) Drifted tephras by currents will be meaningful for correlating marine sediments and estimating palaeo oceanic currents. (6) Quaternary wind systems will be more precisely restored by distribution of tephra formations and/or groups over various ages. (7) Slope processes and its developments should be more fully analyzed by observations of tephra mantling. (8) Soil forming processes and the rates would be successfully clarified from the standpoint of tephrochronology.