The following topics were discussed at the “Symposium on the Features of the Physical Environment of the Plains along the Japan Sea” held at Niigata University, in Niigata City, which is located on the Japan Sea. 1) Geomorphological changes during the Quaternary in the Niigata Plain, 2) Topography which has been formed by the recent crustal movement in the Shonai and Fukui Plains, 3) the formation processes of the Kisagata Plain which was formed by volcanic activities, 4) Relationship between the fluctuation of sea-water level and the geomorphology of the Toyama Plain, 5) Relationship between the formation process of the alluvial plain and the coastal sand dune, b) Features of the alluvial plain which are located along the Japan Sea, based on the geomorphological land classification. Based on the above topics, the discussion was focused on the boundary between Holocene and Pleistocene; features of the natural levee in the Niigata Plain; regional differences of the topography of the plains influenced between the crustal movements; relationship between the crustal movements and fluctuation of the sea-level; classification of the alluvial plains based on whether it has alluvial fan or not; and the impact on the natural environments caused by flood control.
In our country the production of rice exceede the need since 1967. Since them, Japanese agricultural policy bave changed to decrease rice production. Rice framers have been forced to adjust their acreage of rice production. The purpose of this symposium was to examine the regional changes in the adjustment of rice production. The reporters and their themes were as follows: (1) AZUMA, R. and OKAMOTO, J.: Rice production adjustment and changing patterns of land use in Hokkaido. (2) MATSUI, S.: Rice-producing co-operatives, and controls on rice production in the Western Mikawa plain. (3) KAWAKAMI, M.: On the growth and development of the contrastive cultivation (Yami Kosaku) a case study of Ohgata, Niigata prefecture—. (4) ISOBE, T., FURUSAWA, F., CHIKA, T., HAMADA, T., KUWABARA, N. and SAITO A.: The changies in farms and the rice-producing co-operation particularly Kamihachimai and Kohirakata areas, lower reaches of the Shinano, Niigata prefecture—. (5) TAKAHASHI, M.: The characteristics and problems on the co-operative groups for rice production—a case study in Izumiotsu—. (6) KIKUKAWA, K.: Rice producing co-operatives of the rice-producing farms and their adaptation to the administrative measures of rice production adjustment in the Saga plain, Kyusyu. Many opinions were presented on the floor mainly concerning: 1) what changes occured in rice producing area, 2) operation of the rice-producing co-operatives, 3) changing farms and patterns of land use.
The symposium was held to discuss “The Basis of and Changes Local Industries (Ziba Sangyo in Japanese)”. There were ten reports for this symposium; AIDA, T.: “The Nihon-Shi (Japanese Paper) Industry”, HAMADA, R., KUSAKABE, T. and KASAI, Y.: “The Textile Industry”, OGUCHI, E.: “The Lens Industry”, MAKI, S., KAGOSHIMA, G.and MIYASHITA, F.: “The Metal Industry”, TAKATSU, Y., SUZUKI, M.and SUZUKI, H.: “Local Industries in Niigata Prefecture”, NAKATO, Y.: “Local Industry in the Hokuriku Region”. These reports dealt with the type of local industries and the relations between the local industries and the rural areas. On these reports, comments were made by CODA, S., MORIKAWA, S., and AONO, T. And further, comments were made by OKUYAMA, Y. from the point of the rural industry, and by TAKFUCHI, A. from the point of urban industry. The points at issue were as follows: 1. The definition of local industry with special reference to “local” (Ziba in Japanese). 2. The origin and development of local industries in connection with the roles of materials, markets, capital, labor force, and spread of technology in forming regions of local industries (Sanchi in Japanese). 3. The roles of local industries in local economy.
Most of Japanese municipalities, which were incorporated first in 1899, have experienced annexation or consolidation. However, there are municipalities which have not been annexed by adjacent large municipalities. This symposium was intended to focus on the problems of such non-annexed small corporate units. In order to handle the problems, we must pay attention not only to their geographical location, but also totheir administrative, financial and historical background. This symposium was carried on by two chairmen, four commentators, and ten speakers. Chariman: Osamu NISHIKAWA (Univ. of Tokyo) and Yoshio WATANABE (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ.), Commentators: Shoichi YOKOYAMA (Univ. of Ehime), Hideo TSUKADA (Univ. of Nara), Yasuo MASAI (Univ. of Tsukuba), and Naoki YOSHIZU (Univ. of Nagoya). We got the following ten reports. 1. FUKUHARA, H.: Case Study of Waki-cho Bordering Hiroshima and Yamaguchi Prefecture. 2. HIGAKI M.: Case Study of Yoshitomi-cho Adjacent to Nakotsu City, Ohita Prefecture. 3. SAEKI, I.: Case Study of Fuchu-machi Adjacent to Hiroshima City, Hiroshima Prefecture. 4. IDO, S.: Historical Approaches to Several Non-annexed Muras in Shiga Prefecture. 5. SAKAGUCHI, K. MIZUYAMA, T. and KOTANI, M.: Case Study of Iwataki-cho, Kyoto Prefecture. 6. YOKOTA, T.: Case Study of Kasugai-cho, Yamaguchi Prefecture. 7. CHIBA, T.: Minami-kawahara-mura, Saitama Prefecture. 8. OHISHI, T.: Demographical Approach to the Distribution of Non-annexed Municipalities. 9. OGURI, H.: On the Changes in Communities with the Consolidation of Local Government. 10. MIIDA, K.: Case Study of Some Non-annexed Small Corporate Units. Discussions were focused on the following points. 1. Merits and demerits of the non-annexed municipalities 2. Management and control of the budget of the municipalities 3. Community sentiment and non-annexed municipalities 4. Moderate scale of local government 5. Connection with other local governments in terms of consolidation.