In this symposium, we intended to clarify the following five problems. 1. The patterns of industrialization in rural areas and their regional variations. 2. The relations between the regional characteristics of rural industries and their mar kets or circulating systems. 3. The influences of industrialization on agriculture in rural industrial areas. 4. The influences of industrialization on social rerations in rural communities of industrial areas. 5. The history of the industrialization policies in rural areas, and the role of these policies to the modernization of the rural communities. Concering these problems, five reports were given. (1) KITAMURA, Y. (Toyo Univ.): The distributions and the classifications of rural manu facturing industries in Japan. (2)AOYAGI, K. (Thhoku Univ.) : The pickled vegetables industry in Yokote basin in the Thhoku region. (3)KUSAKABE, T. (Ashikaga High School): The relationship between farming and subcon tract textile works operated by farmers- the case study of the Ashikaga textile (for domestic use) manufacturing area (4)MATUDA, M. (Odawara Jonai High Schopl) : The role of seasonal workers from rural areas during winter, and the supplying systems of those workers-the case study in Matsushi ro-machi, Niigata prefecture - (5)MURAKAMI, M. (Hiroshima Univ.): The changing characteristics of rural communities where manufacturing factories were newly located-the case study of the rural settele ments in the Chugoku highland region. We had the free discussion about those reports and comments. (MURATA, K. and UKITA, T. chaired) The following points were main issues. (1) Justification of the stud areas. (2)elationships between the disintegration of farmers and the manufacturing industries. (3)Relationships between the industrialization in rural settlements and the social re lations in rural communities. (4) Criteria used as measures of the effect of industrialization in rural areas. (5)Influences of the manufacturing industries on rural settlements.
The purpose of this symposium was to discuss the problems of geographical education, especially in primary and secondary schools. That was pointed out during the symposium of 1977, titled “PROBLEMS OF GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION”. The participants in this symposium were made up of seven reporters and two commentators. The papers presented by these reporters are as follows: ISHITOBI, K.: Geographical education in Kenya. UMEMURA, M.: Curriculum development for geographical education in the United King dom. KOJIMA, A.: A reexamination of the teaching of world geography. IWAMOTO, H.: On the imaginary environment of “community” in a children's mind. KOMATSU, T. and MOCHIZUKI, H.: The ability of understanding of the world by children returning from abroad. KUBOTA, T.: A study on the evaluation of geographical education. YAMAGUCHI, Y.: A study on the curriculum for geographical education in normal colleges. On these papers, the commentators posed challenging questions, made constructive comments, and led the discussions with attendants. The discussions were focused on the following points: 1. The relationship between the new subject of “modern society” and geographical education. 2. Methodological studies for the introduction of cultural geography into geographical education. 3. Methodological problems of social studies and geographical education. 4. Curriculum development and textbooks.
It was the first geographical symposium on snow and life held in snow country of Japan. The purposes of this symposium were to clarify the climatological features of snowfall and the distribution of snow accumulation, to deal with the relations between snow and rural/ urban communities, and between snow and recreation, electricity, transportation, and architecture, and to discuss the countermeasures for snow damage. From these discussions we intended to explain the characteristics of snow country and their changes through time. The following fifteen papers were presented: SHITARA, H.: The distribution of snowfall in Japan. KUROSAKA, H.: The visible image from the meteorological satellite and snow in the Japan Sea. YOSHIDA, Y.: The snowfall on the mountain areas during the winter, 1978-1979. FUKUORA, Y.: Snowfall and micro-topography.