地理学評論
Online ISSN : 2185-1719
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
53 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 矢澤 大二
    1980 年 53 巻 6 号 p. 357-374
    発行日: 1980/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Many theories of climatic classification and of division of climatic regions of the world have been presented in general books on climatology and on physical geography. However, few reports trace the current of thoughts synthetically from the very root of studies up to the present. In the present paper the author has an object to follow the development of thoughts successively and point out how the thoughts of significance had been exploited and developed further. This paper consists of three parts ; namely, an examination of effective methods, a discussion of the problem of humid and arid boundary, and an examination of genetic methods.
    Effective methods since the 1840's are examined. Some earlier works by Hult, Supan, Köppen, de Martonne, Philipsson etc. were followed by several modern works by Blair, Trewartha, Creutzburg Troll, etc. Special attention is paid to make clear the current of thoughts, regarding representative standards for clamatic classification and for objective divisions into climatic regions.
    Then, the problem of the boundary between humid and arid regions are reviewed and examined. The concept of effective humidity originated in Linssers's earlier work has been developed by various successors, in order to make clear the water budget or the limit of arid region, indirectly. Physiogeographic consideration by A. Penck was a pioneer work of importance. After genealogic consideration of various methods for evaluating aridity of climate (indices such as Regenfaktor, indice d'aridité, quotient pluviothermique, precipitation effectiveness etc.) and their applicability to distinguish humid and arid climates, the author examines concisely the approach to the rational classification of climate introduced by Thornthwaite, and developed by his successors.
    It is also pointed out that there are two currents of thoughts regarding the main division of climatic regions of the world. One is to divide, except for the polar region, the world into humid and arid regions, then to subdivide the former into thermal zones and the latter into regions depending upon the degree of aridity. The other is, on the contrary, to divide the world into several thermal zones, and then to subdivide them into subregions, based upon the degree of aridity or humidity of climate. The standpoint of these approachs, therefore, are different to each other.
    Finally, genetic methods of classification of climate and their applicability to the presentation of climatic regions are examined. The root of such a current could be found in the early works on wind systems or windregions of the world introduced by Mühry, Wojeikof, Köppen, Hettner etc. during the latter half of the last century and the first half of this
  • 新見 治
    1980 年 53 巻 6 号 p. 375-388
    発行日: 1980/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では,瀬戸内地方にある芦田川流域の3,200の家庭を対象としたアンケート調査および水使用量調査の資料にもとついて,家庭用水の需要構造を分析した.ダミー変数を説明変数に含む三つの線形の水需要関数を,重回帰分析により導いた.その結果,家庭用水需要の重要な因子は,家庭規模(家族人数)・地下水の利用・水洗トイレの利用・家庭外や屋外での水利用であること,水需要の家庭規模に関する平均弾力性は0.30~0.73,所得および価格の弾力性はともにゼロに近い値であることが示された.これらは,前報(新見, 1977)の結果とよく一致した.また,分析の結果にもとついて,都市化にともなう家庭用水の需要構造の変化についても考察を加えた.
  • 林 陽生
    1980 年 53 巻 6 号 p. 389-395
    発行日: 1980/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    The main purpose of the present study is to clarify the profile of air flow in the canopy layers. In a study of the atmospheric boundary layers, under neutral stabilities, the following basic equations are given in the canopy layers by Takeda (1965):
    where τ is the vertical transfer of momentum, ρ the air density, C the constant proportional to the drag coefficient of the individual roughness element, F the leaf-area parameter, u the wind speed, K the eddy diffusivity and α the constant. F denotes the degree of the growth density of vegetation, being assumed to take the value between 0 (without vegetation) and 1 (completely dense growth). From the above equations following secondorder differential equation is obtained:
  • 1980 年 53 巻 6 号 p. 396-399,402
    発行日: 1980/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 1980 年 53 巻 6 号 p. 401
    発行日: 1980年
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
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