地理学評論
Online ISSN : 2185-1719
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
56 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 斉藤 享治
    1983 年 56 巻 2 号 p. 61-80
    発行日: 1983/02/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    岩屑の供給地域が周氷河地域となったところと,ならなかったところで,岩屑供給量が異なっていたのがどうか,河床変化が同程度であったのかどうかを,因子分析法を用いて明らかにした.
    表日本においては,中台期(3~5万年前)に岩屑供給量が多く,それ以降,河床は下刻傾向を示す.立川期(1~3万年前)と完新世の各時期には,岩屑供給量が少ない.北海道では,中台期,立川期,完新世を通じて岩屑供給量が少なく,下末吉期から中台期にかけて河床は埋積傾向を示す.一方,氷期でも,岩屑の供給地域の大部分が周氷河地域とならなかったと考えられる西南日本では,岩屑供給量は立川期に少なく,下末吉期と完新世には比較的多く,河床は各時期を通じて安定している.これらのことは,非周氷河地域で降水の多いところよりも,周氷河地域で降水の比較的多いところで,岩屑供給量が多いことを示唆している.河床は,降水が少なくなり,非周氷河地域から周氷河地域へと移行する気候変化のときに埋積傾向,降水が多くなり,周氷河地域から非周氷河地域へと移行する気候変化のときに下刻傾向を示し,それ以外の場合には安定している.
  • 佐倉 保夫, 谷口 真人
    1983 年 56 巻 2 号 p. 81-93
    発行日: 1983/02/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    地表から地下水面に至る土壌水の移動機構を明らかにするために,比較的地下水面の浅い場合を想定したカラムによる浸透実験を行なった。そして,降雨発生にともなう土壌水の挙動および土壌の保水形態と水の運動形態の関係を論じた.本研究で得られた結論を要約すると,以下のようになる.
    (1) ぬれ前線が懸垂水帯を降下して,不飽和毛管水帯の上端,すなわち毛管上昇の上限の位置に到達すると,毛管水帯では土壌水の一斉移動が始まり,地下水面を通過するフラックスが生ずる.この現象は,毛管水帯における毛管力と重力の圧力平衡の崩壊に起因するものである.
    (2) 懸垂水帯におけるぬれ前線の降下速度は,土壌の種類によるよりも降雨強度に大きく依存する.そのため,同じ降雨強度に対しては,降雨開始後,地下水面を通過する土壌水の移動が始まるまでの時間は,毛管上昇高の小さな粗粒土壌よりも毛管上昇高の大きな細粒土壌で短い.この理由は, (1) で述べた土壌水の移動機構によって説明できる.
    (3) 懸垂水帯と毛管水帯では,土壌の保水形態の相違にもとついて,土壌水の運動形態が異なる.懸垂水帯においては,土粒子間の接合部に保持される水に,毛管水帯では,土粒子間の間隙を満たす水によらて,土壌水の運動形態は支配される.そのため,降雨浸透過程では (1) で述べたように,前者ではぬれ前線が降下する運動形態を,後者ではすべての場所で一斉に移動を開始する運動形態をとる.
  • 石井 素介, 岡本 次郎
    1983 年 56 巻 2 号 p. 94-102
    発行日: 1983/02/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    The topic for this symposium first carves to mind because this particular convention of the Association of Japanese Geographers was held in Hokkaido, an area in Japan which is considered peripheral. The concept underlying the term “periphery” is multidimensional; there are peripheral areas in territories on a national scale in contrast with peripheral areas of care areas ; there are marginal productive areas in the economic sense such as the mountainous areas of a country, developing or dependent countries versus metropolitan or developed countries on a worldwide scale, and so on. The symposium aimed at not only presenting the multifaceted nature of the periphery concept but also at discovering characteristics common to peripheral areas of various kinds and dimensions and the peculiarities of changing dimensions in the periphery concept.
    The location of socio-economic activities in peripheral areas cannot be interpreted in terms of abstract economic theories but must be analysed in the context of historical dominancy/dependency relationships, segmentation/integration processes, and the political dynamics of the relationships between centralisation and regional autonomy. The problems concerned require new approaches in geographical studies and, in this sense, the organizers' intent was that the discussions contribute to the progress of methodology in contemporary geography.
    The paper session and the general discussion were presided over by Y. Okuda (Chuo Univ.) and K. Takeuchi (Hitotsubashi Univ.). Before the general discussion, the following seven papers and three commentaries were read:
    Y. Fuaita (Aiichi Univ.): Characteristics of mountain villages as peripheral areas and some important themes of studies on this subject
    H. Sakamoto (tiara Univ.): Agricultural location in the peripheral areas, focussing mainly on cases in Hokkaido
    K. Yamashita (Hokkaido Univ. of Education): Public investments in the agricultural sector in Hokkaido
    M. Miyagi (Ryukyu Univ.): Excessive imbalances in the location of administrative functions concerning maritime and air traffic and meteorological observation in periphe-ral areas in Hokkaido and Okinawa
    T. Ishihara (Okayama Univ.): Regional policies in France, with special emphasis on the case of Brittany
    H. Kurihara (Ochanomizu Univ.): he-examination of the “periphery” concept in the case of Spain
    M. Koga (Hitotsubashi Univ.): Locational problems in the peripheral areas of developing countries
    K. Ito (Keio Univ.) : Commentary on industrial development in the peripheral areas of Japan, in relation with regional policies
    F. Mizuoka (Hitotsubashi Univ.) Commentary on the periphery as an internal colony
    F. Yamaguchi (Hosei Univ.): Commentary on the emergence and relevancy of regional problems pertaining to peripheral areas
    The general discussion which was very animated was focussed mainly on the following four points:
    1. The conceptual distinction of “periphery” of various kinds and dimensions and the transcendental meaning of the concept, granting that said meaning exists.
    In this connection, the difference between the terms “periphery”, “frontier”, and “border” was also discussed.
    2. Problems concerning the articulation of economic aspects with socio-cultural aspects in geography.
    3. The mechanism of reproduction/persistency of the centre-periphery relationship.
    4. Measures for overcoming the peripheral character.
    In tEis connection, questions concerning actual regional policies in Japan and the regionalist movement were discussed.
  • 福田 正己, 小疇 尚, 野上 道男
    1983 年 56 巻 2 号 p. 103-111
    発行日: 1983/02/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cold regions are featured by most distinctive activities and developments conducted by mankind with much bearing on life. The aspects and concepts of the cold regions might be defined geographically for understanding the relation between human activities and physical environments. Coldness acts on the ground and vegetation in a long geological time. And the characteristic land forms have developed in those regions, while vegetation such as coniferous forests have adapted so well to the cold environments that they have dominated the regions.

    This symposium was planned and organized with an aim to understand the characteristics of the cold regions from various viewpoints through interdisciplinary discussions. Those researchers who were invited to participate in it represented the fields of physical geography, plant ecology, glaciology and anthropology.
    The symposium had the following five sessions with topics and speakers mentioned together:
    I) Cold Regions location and definition in a global scale
    * Cold regions defined by climatology, by Prof. M. Yoshino, of Tsukuba Univ.
    * Cold regions characterized by forest ecology, by Prof. A. Sakai, of Hokkaido Univ.
    II) Polar Regions
    Glacial erosion and glacial fluctuations in Antarctica, by Prof. Y. Yoshida, of
    * National Polar Research Institute
    * Sea-ice and glaciers in polar regions, by Prof. K. Kusunoki, of the same
    * Submerged topography near the coast of Showa Station Antarctica, and its relation with the advanced ice-sheet from inland, by Dr. K. Omoto, of Tohoku Univ.
    III) Sub-Arctic Regions
    * Regional distribution and characteristics of permafrost, by Prof. S. Kinosita, of Hokkaido Univ.
    * Glacial and interglacial alternations in late Quaternary, by Dr. K. Hirakawa, of Yamanashi Univ.
    W) Alpine Regions
    * Characteristics of plant ecology in alpine regions, by K. Dr. Ito, of Hokkaido Univ.
    * Characteristics of alpine regions in Japan compared with other alpine regions, by Dr. T. Koizumi, of Tokyo Gakugei Univ.
    V) Climatic Changes
    * Climatic changes in cold regions, by Prof. Y. Sakaguchi, of Tokyo Univ.
    * Climatic changes and their impacts on human history, by Prof. K. Okada, of Hokkaido Univ.
    * Paleo-environments in coastal regions in Hokkaido in the post last glacial age, by Dr. K. Endo, of Nippon Univ.
    Session I started with Prof. Yoshino's introduction of a variety of classifications of cold regions from the viewpoint of climatology. He pointed out the index of a warmer period such as the monthly mean air temperature of the warmest month during the year, which was the most suggestive in the definition of the cold regions. Then, Prof. Sakai indicated that coniferous forests dominate the cold regions, such distributions of the trees being due to accumulating temperatures during the growing period and to their dormance during the cold period. Besides these thermal conditions, precipitation is also important, he said, adding that boreal forests in the cold regions adapt to the physical environments characterized by coldness and precipitation such as above and that as the results of adaptation, the number of tree species is smaller in the warmer regions.
    Session II began with Prof. Yoshido's explanation of the characteristics of land forming process in Antarctica. He also pointed out that glacial erosion dominates in Antarctica, because other fluvial erosions do not occur. In his talk, however, the intensity of the erosion was not examined in detail. Next, Prof. Kusunoki showed the paleo-climatic records obtained from ice-core samples from the Antarctica ice-sheet. He also explained the importance of the sea-ice coverage along the Antarctical Coast resulting in the global climatic changes.
  • 1983 年 56 巻 2 号 p. 112-112,120
    発行日: 1983/02/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
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