The transportation phenomena are a collective expression of socio-economic activities and, therefore, can be viewed as flows in intra and inter-regional contexts. Flows of people goods, and information are an aspect of the transportation phenomena. Among these, the flow of people is especially important. The shares of passenger flows, among various modes appear to be influenced by socioeconomic relations and connections between regions. The objective of this paper is to undertake a disaggregated study of passenger transportation by mode (bus, railroad, private car, and air transportation) during 1963 and 1977 in Japan. These two years were selected because during the intervening years there was the expansion of high-speed' transportation facilities. The primary goal of this study is to clarify changes in the patterns of passenger flows by mode in Japan. Data used in this study are the inter-prefectural passenger origin and destination survey (46×46) of each mode by the Ministry of Transport in 1963 and 1977. The number of prefectures included in the survey was 46 for land transportation in 1963 and 1977. For air transportation, the number of prefectures was 29 in 1963 and 30 in 1977. Analyses of over 0.1% flows proportional to the total passenger flows in each mode were undertaken to ascertain relative changes in volume. The results of the analyses are as follows: 1. In land transport, the passenger flows between Tokyo, Osaka and their neighboring prefectures are conspicuous (commuting flows) in Japan. The percentage of bus passenger flows have increased from 1963 to 1977 between larger cities (Fig. 2-b). The reasons for the change are the appearance of high-speed transportation facilities and the entry of private railroad companies into the long distance passenger service. Further, the increase in the intercity flows of buses reflects the increased use of private passenger cars. The bus companies compensated for the decline in local passenger traffic and emphasized the long distance passenger traffic. Also, there was an increase in the passenger flows by railroad between larger cities and prefectures with regional centers and by direct linkage between larger cities and other prefectures (Fig. 3-b). The reasons for this change are the long distance travel with the construction of the Shinkansen (new main line trains), the electrification of railroads, and the spread of special express trains. In intrrregional flows, the increase of private cars is noticeable (Fig. 6-b). The use of private cars increased because of the widespread ownership of automobiles, the expansion and improvements of roads and increased income. Finally, interregional air passenger flows remain to be same between 1963 and 1977 on trunk line (Hokkaido-Tokyo-Osaka-Fukuoka). A comparison between air and railroad transportation during this period indicates that the relative share of passengers using air transportation declined in the flows between Tokyo and Osaka because of the competition from the Shinkansen line. The rates of air passenger flows between Tokyo and Hokkaido, Shikoku, Kyushu were higher in 1977 (Fig. 8-b). The phenomena resulted from the increase in personal income, expansion of air service to more locations, and the inexpensiveness of air fare in comparison with the first class train seat. 2. The development of high-speed transportation systems increased long distance passenger flows. This development focused the passenger flows on Tokyo. As indicated above, the relative share of air transportation declined between Tokyo and Osaka because of the competition from the Shinkansen line. 3. Changes in the railroad passenger rates between Tokyo and its neighboring prefectures are relatively high while those of private passenger cars are relatively low (Figs. 4 and 7).
It is well known that the distribution, of air temperature in time and space near the ground surface is caused by the partitioning of energy at the ground surface. However, the physical relationship between the air temperature change and the surface energy balance is not clear. The purpose of this paper is to describe the influence of surface energy balance on spatial and temporal variation in air temperature using observations of heat balance in the soilatmosphere system near the ground surface. The experimental site was selected at the Environmental Research Center of the University of Tsukuba in Ibaraki Pref., Japan (Fig. 1). Observations were carried out on two occasions. The first was from 04 hr on August 6 to 04 hr on August 7, 1981. The second was from 05 hr on September 13 to 05 hr on September 14, 1981. Elements observed were wet and drybulb temperatures, wind speed, net radiation, soil heat flux, soil temperature and volumetric heat capacity of the soil. The energy balance equation for the earth's surface is customarily expressed in the form: Rn=H+LE+G0(1) where Rn is the net radiation flux density, H. is the sensible heat flux density, LE is the latent heat flux density and G0 is the soil heat flux density into or out of the surface. In this study, Rn was measured directly by a net radiometer. Other components of the surface energy balance were determined by applying the more suitable method available. Daytime H and LE were computed by the Bowen's ratio method, and G0 was calculated with measurements by means of a heat flux plate. On the other hand, nighttime H and LE were computed by the profile method, and G0 was estimated by the energy balance method. As a result of the calculations, it can be seen that in the daytime warming and cooling of the air layer near the surface occurs independently of the sensible heat flux changes (Figs. 4-A and 5). This result suggests that the air temperature changes in the surface boundary layer are usually due to the convergence and divergence of the sensible heat flux within the surface boundary layer. If the air layer near the surface warms and cools as a result of the variation in the sensible heat flux with height, on the assumption that no other processes are involved, rates of air temperature change are expressed by _??_T/_??_t=-(H2-H1)/ρcp(z2-z1) (2) where H2 and H1 are the sensible flux at the height of z2 (100 cm) and z1 (2 cm) respectively, ρ is the air density and cp is the specific heat of air at constant pressure. The vertical differences of sensible heat flux (H2 - H1) are computed by the equation (2). For example, (H2-H1) was approximately 0.92 W m-2 when the maximum cooling rate occurred at 16 hr on August 6, 1981 (Fig. 6). The value of H2 -H1=0.92W m-2 is very small, and a vertical difference of this magnitude is difficult to measure directly. Even though the vertical differences are very small indeed, the convergence and divergence of sensible heat flux plays a very important role in air temperature change in the surface boundary layer. This is particulary important during the daytime hours.
The purpose of this symposium was to discuss the methodological problems on the relationship between geographic education and social studies, operating in Japan. The thesis was pointed out during the symposium of 1979, titled “PROBLEMS ON GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS.” The participants in this symposium were made up of seven reporters and two commentators. The papers presented by these reporters are as follow: Oguri, H.: Relative situations between social studies and geographical education. Teramoto, K.: Divergence of geographic education after the operation of social studies in primary school. Noda, M.: Oceanographic study in compulsory schools; the possibilities of integration into the geographic education. Nakayama, M.: Geographic education and school atlases in the primary and secondary schools. Iwamoto, H.: Revaluations of the (core-curriculum): from view points of geographic education. Kaito, T, and Miura, M.: “Modern Society” and geographic education. On these papers, the commentators posed challenging questions, made constructive comments, and led the discussions with attendants. The discussions were focused on the following points: 1. Some problems on the curriculum for primary schools, especially on 3-4 grades. 2. The relationship between new subject of “Modern Society” introduced into high schools, and geographic education. 3. Some problems on school atlas of Japan.