The administrative boundaries of towns and villages as shown in maps and statistical data are represented by different areas as occupied by them. In this paper, topography is considered to be one of the causes of such areal differences. When the sites of towns and villages are classified topographically into mountain-land, plain, and foot of mountains, it is found that areas in mountain-land are the largest and those in plains the smallest (see Figs. 4, 5, 6). As another cause of areal variation, unequal distribution of density of population is considered. If the population of the towns and villages is nearly constant, a correlative. relation should then hold between density of population and area. With this consideration as basis, the writer has drawn Figs. 7, 8, 9. As these figures show, populations from 1000 to 2800 are most frequent for towns and villages in Toyama and Ishikawa Prefectures, and from 1600 to 4000 in Niigata Prefectures. These being the most frequent numbers for the population, as above mentioned, roughly speaking, we can recognize a correlative relation connecting density and area.
It is often that profile curves of the surface of mountainlands show the reliefs of the district more clearly than are done by mere morphological maps. Characteristics of surface features, such as peneplane-remnants, faultscarps, warping surfaces, etc., are emphasizee. In this report, the author tried to classify these profile curves, but without success owing probably to lack of data. The Tanzawa Mountainland, from which the present profiles are taken, is known as being extraordinarily complicated in its fine structure of fault-line nets. Careful attention was paid to the ridges-profiles, that is, the longitudinal profile along the mountian ridges. These profiles when compared with those of rivers, seabottoms, summitlevels, etc., are far more irregular, and difficult to analyse. They alone, however, retain the profiles and point to any small abnormalities that may exist. Some of the profile curves are shown in the figures, among which fig. 11 and fig. 13 indicate typically the step-faults and the horst respectively. Attempts were made to compare fault-scarps quantitatively.