地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
57 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 岩崎 一孝
    1984 年 57 巻 6 号 p. 369-383
    発行日: 1984/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿は,7月における華中の多雨・少雨の原因としての気流系モデルを提出することを目的とする.7月の東アジアの降水量分布には2種類の多雨帯が認められる.ひとつは前線帯の南偏・北偏に関係なく現われる華南の多雨帯であり,もうひとつは,前線帯の南偏・北偏に伴って,南北に出現位置が動く多雨帯である.華中の多雨・少雨は後者の多雨帯の位置と深く関係する.華中が多雨のとき,この多雨帯が華中から西日本にかけて現われる.前線帯はこのとき,華中から西日本にかけて走り,集中度は高い.華中が少雨のとき,この多雨帯は華北から朝鮮半島,日本列島にかけて現われる.前線帯も華北から朝鮮半島,,日本列島にかけて走り,集中度は低い.
    前線帯の位置と中緯度偏西風,南西気流との対応関係について検討し,降水量分布と前線帯との関係と対比させて,次の気流系が推定された.華中が多雨となる場合は,中緯度偏西風が南北循環卓越型で,ヒマラヤ・チベット山塊東側に深いトラフをつくり,ここに湿潤な南西気流が侵入して,直接中緯度偏西風と収束する.これに対し,華中が少雨となる場合は,中緯度偏西風が東西循環卓越型で,ヒマラヤ・チベット山塊東側には浅いトラフしかつくらず,華中まで侵入しない.南西気流も直接華中に侵入せず,華中は亜熱帯高圧帯の沈降性の気流におおわれる.
  • 水野 一晴
    1984 年 57 巻 6 号 p. 384-402
    発行日: 1984/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    赤石山脈の高山帯一亜高山帯には,いわゆる「お花畑」が広く分布している.この「お花畑」の成立条件を明らかにするために,地形,標高,風,積雪量などの環境因子を検討した.その結果,「お花畑」の分布や群落組成は,6種類の地形タイプによって大きく規定されており,それぞれの地形タイプに対応した6つの「お花畑」の立地環境型が存在することが明らかになった.各立地環境型は異なった環境因子の組み合わせからなっており,それが「お花畑」の性格を規定している. 6つの立地環境型は次のとおりである. (I) 亜高山帯風背緩斜面型, (II) 高山帯凹型風背急斜面型, (III) 大規模線状凹地(二重山稜)型, (IV) 小規模線状凹地型, (V) 沢沿い斜面型, (VI) 雪窪型.
  • 宮井 隆
    1984 年 57 巻 6 号 p. 403-412
    発行日: 1984/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Migrant farmworkers are among the poorest and most disadvantaged groups in the agricultural society of the United States. In terms of income, housing, education and health they are more similar to the people of many developing countries than they are to most middle class Americans. Their ceaseless migration from Florida to Maine, from Texas to Minnesota, from California to the state of Washington went unnoticed. For the last fifteen years a variety of programs to alleviate many problems which beset farmworkers have been tried with various degrees of success in all parts of the country where agriculture demands their labor. Put one problem which has constantly hampered the design and operation of farmworker programs has been the lack of good empirical data.
    The recent trends and current patterns of the United States agricultural employment system are summarized as follows (USDA, 1982).
    Nearly 3 million people do hired farmwork sometime during the year.
    One-third of all U. S. farms employ hired labor.
    Most labor is hired by the largest farms. Less than 2 percent of all farms account for more than one-third of all labor expenditures.
    Hired labor use is concentrated primarily in certain regions.
    Migrants comprise only about 8 percent of the total hired farmwork force, and there only about half as many of them as a decade ago. Although their numbers are small, they face unique problems not encountered by persons commuting daily to seasonal agricultural jobs from established homes.
    Texas continues to be the home base for the lagest group of migrant farmworkers serving American agriculture. Each year, operators of farms depend upon these nameless and faceless people to perform the difficult tasks of agricultural work. In Texas, these farmworkers are mostly Mexican Americans (95%) who are poor, undereducated, ill-housed, poorly nourished, and do not have the skill to take advantage of other employment opportunities.
    According to the 1975 Migrant Population Survey, there are 85, 600 migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Migrant farmworkers in Texas fall in several categories which are not mutually exclusive. There are interstate and intrastate migrant farmworkers. Interstate migrants leave the state to work, while intrastate migrants work in different areas within the state.
    The counties of Cameron, Hidalgo, and Willacy or Starr have a large population of farmworker labor force. These counties are called Lower Rio Grande Valley or simply Valley. Agriculture is important in the Valley; citrus fruit, cotton, vegetable, sorghum, etc. The Valley is a focal point of social, political, legal and economic conditions that have attracted national and even international attention. For a long time, there poured a stream of illegal Mexican migrants into this area. Some of these migrants moved on northward to other parts of Texas and other states. Most of them stayed for brief periods only and then recrossed the river to return their homes and families in Mexico. Illegal immigrants are called “Wetback.” At the present day a great number of the undocumented Mexican enter to Texas. It is possible to take the view that about 15 percent of these people are to be migrant farmworkers (by Dr. S. Weintraub).
    This note concludes that the situation of Texas and the agricultural characteristic of the United States are responsible of the migrants farmworkers.
  • 神谷 浩夫
    1984 年 57 巻 6 号 p. 413-426
    発行日: 1984/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Consumer behavior research stimulated by the development of cognitive behavioral approach has accumulated many empirical studies, having close relation to such established fields as spatial interaction studies and the central place theory. Recent trends in this field suggest that spatial behavior is influenced by spatial and temporal constraints and that preference structure behind the behavior is not intrinsic to individuals. In the light of this argument, the focus of the study is placed on the constraints-oriented spatial choice process. The purpose of the paper is to propose a store choice model which includes the concept of constraints and to test its validity.
    First, through the descriptive analysis in Section III, consumers' patronage patterns for various facilities (including grocery store, pharmacy, post office and bank) are examined. The data are gathered through the self-reporting about these facilities by housewives living in Nagoya City.
    In Section IV the proposed model is operationalised and applied to the grocery store choice. In this model, the choice process is divided into two components. One expresses the process of constructing individual's choice set. The other indicates the process of choosing the best alternative among the choice set. And the standard ellipse is used as the choice set to delineate the activity space where consumers usually keep contact. The form of the choice function is multiplicative. When we introduce the activity space ellipse, we could explain the observed behavior better than without employing the ellipse. At the next step, we subdivid the population into subgroups according to their socio-economic status. This subdivision is repeated in terms of the ownership of private vehicle and the housewife's working status. After the population is divided, the activity ellipses are changed respectively and then applied to the grocery choice model. This time the explanable results were not obtained. The defficiency of the activity ellipse may be due to the discrepancy between the actual travel mode used and the household's ownership reported, and also due to the shape of ellipse.
  • 1984 年 57 巻 6 号 p. 427-430,432
    発行日: 1984/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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