地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
60 巻 , 11 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 鈴木 啓助, 小林 大二
    1987 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 707-724
    発行日: 1987/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    北海道北部の森林小流域(流域面積1.28krn2)において融雪流出の観測を行ない,融雪流出水の化学的な性質の検討,および融雪流出の形成機構についての考察を行なった。その結果,次のことが明らかになった. (1) 河川水中のCl-濃度は融雪初期に高く,後期には低くなる。HCO3-濃度は融雪期に融雪の前後より低くなる. (2) 河川水中の陰イオン組成は,融雪開始前はHCO3-が主要な成分であるが,融雪の開始とともに次第にCrの割合が大きくなり,融雪最盛期にはCrとHCO3-の当量がほぼ等しくなる.融雪完了後には融雪開始前の陰イオン組成に戻る. (3) 融雪最盛期の湧水のHCO3-濃度は融雪開始前の河川水の濃度よりわずかに低く,Cl-濃度は融雪開始前の河川水の濃度よりわずかに高い.湧水を形成する「ふるい水」もその化学的性質は一定ではなく,わずかに融雪の影響を受けている. (4) 「ふるい水」のCl-濃度が徐々に変化するとして,水とCl-の質量保存則により2成分の流出成分分離を行なった結果,河川流量に占める「あたらしい水」の割合は,ピーク時でも約40%に過ぎず,日流出高については最大でも22%を占めるに過ぎない. (5) 融雪の進行に伴う積雪域の後退により,「ふるい水」の流出形態に変化がみられる.積雪域が河道近傍まで広がっているときには,「あたらしい水」の地中への浸透による「ふるい水」の押し出し流が顕著であり,積雪域の後退に従い押し出し流の効果が遅くかつ少なくなる.
  • 谷口 真人
    1987 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 725-738
    発行日: 1987/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    新潟県長岡平野における地下水温の形成機構を解明するために,地下水温の時空間分布の観測と熱移流を考慮:した数値解析を行なった.その結果,地下水温鉛直分布の季節変化パターンは特徴的な4つのタイプに分類され,その分布域も地域的な特徴を持つことが明らかになった.また,地下水流動による熱移流を考慮した数値解析により,これらの地域的差異が,地下水の涵養・流出・移流・揚水によって生じたものであることが明らかになった。地下水流動系の涵養域および流出域に出現するタイプは,それぞれ年間を通じた0.01m/dの下向きおよび上向きのフラックスの存在により,恒温層深度が鉛直一次元の熱伝導による計算値より約5m下方および上方へ移動する.河川近傍に出現するタイプは,水平熱移流の影響を受けて全層一様に温度変化する.市街地中心部に出現するタイプは冬期の消雪用揚水により,浅層の高温な地下水が水塊状に下方へ移動することにより説明できた.
  • 森川 洋
    1987 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 739-756
    発行日: 1987/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper aims to review the development of central place studies in Japan. The situation has somewhat changed considerably in the ten years since the publication of review articles by Watanabe (1975), Morikawa (1977) and others.
    As reported in the above-mentioned papers, studies of central places in the early 1950 s were influenced not only directly by Christaller's theory but also by other schools of thought such as rural sociology in the United States. Trade area, traffic area, life sphere, city region, etc, were also the focus of attention in urban geography on that area.
    Since that time, the study of city regions has become a major field but the empirical study concerning the hierarchical structure of the central places started to be undertaken, especially by Watanabe (1954 c, 1955). And the central place studies in Japan have grown gradually both in terms of quality and quantity little later than the studies by Anglo-Saxon geographers which reached at one of the golden age around in 1960, when the IGU Symposium was held at Stockholm.
    Two central research directions can be recognized in central place studies. One direction aims to elucidate structural characteristics of the Japanese central place system. Wa tanabe (1975) claims that the research concerns of Japanese urban geographers remain on the level of the morphology of structural patterns and that studies of the causal consequences of structure are lacking. However, his view seems to reflect the fact that most earlier research was in this direction, including his own. Early research endeavored to clarify the structure of central place systems.
    Second direction of study has made efforts to introduce quantitative approaches in Anglo-Saxson geography; it has very rapidly developed since the study of Berry and Garrison (1958). With the exception of the studies of Ishimizu (1957 c) and M, Nishimura (1956, 1969), it was not until the early 1970s that Japanese central place studies using the quantitative approach were published. Both directions of central place studies have developed in parallel, though over time the quantitative approach has become greater emphasized.
    Table 1 shows the number of papers in central place studies published between 1951 and 1986 in units of five years. There is a decreasing trend in the number of papers pub lished after the peak years of 1971-75, when studies of quantitative approach were first published. In recent years the number of papers on theoretical and methodological approaches has increased significantly compared to the number of empirical studies; within the category of empirical studies, there is an increasing number of papers from related fields such as regional-planning application studies.
    The following four points seem to be most important in a discussion of central place sutdies today.
    1) In recent years the quantitative approach using factor analysis has increased greatly. Although new results have been obtained using such analysis, the field of study becomes too narrow when one depends on this type of analysis alone. A pluralism of approaches is required.
    2) Despite long-term development of central place studies since the early 1950 s, method of investigation easily applicable to actual analyses has not yet been established. In mu-nicipalities, for example, statistical approaches are not always appropriate, especially when more than one central place are included within the area of the municipality. In regional planning, the centrality of each settlement should not be measured simply by retail function but also in terms of other central functions such as administration, education, health service, communication etc., from more wholistic perspective.
    3) The central place system on a national scale has been considered using only simple criterion. However, such research has not yet been taken on in the scale of, for example, the “Kluczka-Karte” in West Germany.
  • 小園 修
    1987 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 757-764
    発行日: 1987/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, many investigators have studied the heat island phenomenon and consequently the horizontal temperature distribution of the heat island has been clarified. However, the vertical distribution of the heat island has not been clarified still. A cross-over phenomenon was certified there of in large cities, but the accurate existence of a cross-over phenomenon in medium sized cities has been uncertified up to date as the result
    In this paper, in order to reveal the vertical and horizontal constitution of the heat island in Tsuchiura City (36°06'N, 140°13'E), the observations carried out on October 29/30, 1983 is reported. The results are summaised as follows.
    1) Vertical temperature distribution was observed by using Kytoon at Stations 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. The heat island phenomenon was clearly certified in the central area of the city. The height of the heat island reached up to about 150 m in the sky at 5:00 a. m. on October 30, 1983, under little wind and the clear sky condition (Fig. 3).
    2) To express the three-dimensional heat island intensity, the vertical temperature effect to the city area, the shaded area in Fig. 4, was measured. And the relation between vertical urban temperature effect and horizontal heat island intensity (ΔTu-r) was examined. It was certified as the result that the vertical urban temperature effect was proportional to the horizontal heat island intensity (ΔTu-r), (Fig. 5).
    3) Vertical humidity distributions were measured by use of my original instruments. In order to compare urban humidity with different rural humidity, change of the urban humidity effect (Δdvu-r) was estimated. The result was that absolute humidity was sometimes higher in the central area of the city than in the rural area at height between 30 m and 70 m levels in the sky (Fig. 6).
  • 1987 年 60 巻 11 号 p. 765-768,770
    発行日: 1987/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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