Tropical China is located on the northern border of tropics as seen on the global scale. Accordingly, tropical crops cultivated there are sufflered from cold damages, which are affected sharply by the local and micro-topography. Because of the various aspects of geoecology, change of land use caused by rapid development during the recent years has resulted not only in the changes of soil erosion and local climatic conditions, but also in the change of crop cultivation patterns. The present symposium was composed first by a series of reports carried on the Hainan Island, Guangdong, and Xishuangbanna, Yunnun, and secondly by comments and questions for the reports. M. Yoshino and T. Yasunari reported on the monsoons and their relation to the cold waves and rainy and dry seasons in Tropical China. The cold waves were classified into three and importance of local anticyclone formed in the south of Yangze River region was emphasized for the cold wave invasion in the eastern part of Tropical China. S. Nomoto and T. Yasunari reported on the local climatic conditions in Tropical China, in particular, on the cold air lakes in Chinghong and other basins. Vertical structure and hourly change were made clear which have influence on the land use on the slopes. H. Takahashi, K. Nakagawa and S. Yamakawa dealt with the microclimate of rubber tree plantation in Hainan Island, by analysing the self-recording data accumulated at the stations of the South China Academy of Tropical Crops. K. Urushibara and S.Nagatsuka presented a report on soils and climates as its forming factor. Vertical zonation was made clear in relation to the seasonal change of wetness. H. Makita and H. Chujo studied the natural and artificial vegetations in Tropical China. Their distributions were explained by Warmth Index, macro-scale vegetation history, local topography, etc. S. Shirasaka and T. Ichikawa reported the agricultural land use in Yunnan. Its vertical structures were dealt with.
This symposium is organized to improve methods of education of geography and to find how to make use of scientific researches in geography education of primary and secondary school levels. In this symposium, we selected the following four themes: 1. Training undergraduates for geography teachers. 2. Physical environment and human life. 3. Systematic geography and reginal geography. 4. Understanding of non-indigenous cultures. To expand these themes, the following reports were presented: 1. Y. Sato: The relationship between geography and geographical education in pre-war days-Training geography teachers for secondary schools 2, S. Yamashita: Climatology, geography, and, geographical education-What is the ultimate objective? 3. O, Shinmi: Geography and hydrology-for the comprehensive understanding of relationship between physical environment and human being 4. M. Nagasaka: Geographical education from a human geographer's viewpoint 5. H. Fujii: A proposal to curricula in regional geography-An African specialist's view 6. T. Saito: Cultural geographer's view in understanding non-indigenous culture Although the discussion was not necessarily convergent, many participants agreed to tuckle the following three tasks in the field of education of geography as soon as possible. 1. improving the methods of training students how to become better teachers of geography, 2. teaching physical environments effectively in primary and secondary school levels, 3. introduction of systematic approach of regional geography into school education levels.
Japanese society has come to be referred to as an information-oriented society, and it is infulenced by informations which is increasing significance whole to social and economic aspects. The purpose of this symposium is to clarify the transformations and characteristics of regional systems with the development of new technology on information distribution. Five reports were presented: 1) N. Takayanagi: Characteristics and areas of handbill advertisement with news papers deliverly as distribution of information 2) M. Sano: The transformation of distribution systems and the development of consummer-oriented enerpries 3) S. Namaizawa: The formation of network systems in commercial activities 4) Y. Wakabayashi: The diffusion of CATV and its impact on regional areas in Japan 5) T. Yamazaki: The development of information-oriented society and the locational change of central administrative functions All discussions are focussed on how changing information media affect the systems of existing society in a regional context. The location of every activity would be influenced if a new information technology, such as VAN systems, is widely introduced. A good example would be seen in the location of warehouse and wholesale activities. The development of “chain-store” systems is also expected even in small areal centers. As the highly centralized systems reduce the cost of spatial diffusion of information, leading urban centers like Tokyo will attract more headoffices of bigger firms. Then question is asked how we geographers should perceive the trends in intensifying urban congestion.
In recent years, the links between geography and archaeology are developing rapidly in Japan. The results in physical geography including those of geomorphology, tephrochronology, and palynology are utilized widely for archaeological research, and various data derived from excavations present important informations to physical geographers. At the field of historical geography in which the relation to archaeology have been traditionally close, the chance of intimate contact of the researchers are increasing along with a augmentation of the excavations of historical sites. In addition the resuls of locational analysis in human geography attract attention of archaeologists, and some of them begin to apply the models for studies of the distribution of sites and artefacts The aim of this symposium is to examine the developing relationship between geography and archaeology, and to search for future directions of their collaborations. For this purpose the organizers made request participation to archaeologists of Kyushu area, which is not not only the place of the symposium but also one of the important centers of archaeological research in Japan. The following papers were presented, S. Uemoto and T. Midoshima: An experiment on the movement of artefacts with periglacial process K. Mitsui: An estimation of alluvial sedimentation making use of archaeological evidence M. Umitsu: The relation between landform changes and prehistoric site locations in Nobi Plain, central Japan M. Takahashi: The development in landform and land use since the end of the Jomon Era S. Yamazaki: Locations and forms of paddy fields in early stage of rice cultivations in northern Kyushu R. Kinoshita: A search of the relics of ancient road with air-photographs Y. Ishimatsu: The location of hill top castle of Korean type in Dazaifu Y. Matsunaga, Y. Tanaka, and N. Doi: An analysis on the distribution of a type of figured earthenware in the middle of Jomon Era Y. Yasuda, Y. Kasahara and S. Fujisawa: A great environmental change occurred at 5, 000 years ago After the presentation of papers and comments, H. Iseki (chief organizer) reviewed the history of the relation between geography and archaeology in Japan, and summarized the subjects of discussion. Following Iseki's speech a number of topics including methodology, environmental changes, and human use of lands were discussed with many participants. Finally Prof. K. Yokoyama (Kyushu University) made a remark on results of the symposium from archaeological point of view.