地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
61 巻 , 8 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 野尻 亘
    1988 年 61 巻 8 号 p. 597-614
    発行日: 1988/08/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    戦後復興期・高度成長期・低成長期を通して,わが国の物的流通は質的・量的に大きく変化した。本研究では,これらの社会経済的背景とあわせて運輸省の路線認可等を資料とし,大手路線トラック企業の中の2社を中心にして,それらや他の定期路線トラック輸送のネットワークの空間的な形成過程を明らかにした.その結果,戦時下の統合企業として大きくなったトラック業者が,(1)復興期には本社所在地から東京・名古屋・大阪へと進出し,(2)高度成長期には東海道から仙台・広島・福岡などへと路線を拡大して全国的路線網を形成する企業も出現し,(3)低成長期には一部の業者が東北や九州などで路線網の拡大を続けている'のは,これらが小荷物輸送を推進していることを反映しているためであること,が明らかとなった.また,多くの路線トラックの運行系統の発着地が東海道メガロポリスの路線網上に集中していることを明らかにした.
  • 菅野 洋光
    1988 年 61 巻 8 号 p. 615-631
    発行日: 1988/08/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    寒帯気団の構造・性格を東アジアのスケールで解析し,寒帯気団と梅雨前線との関係について検討した.梅雨前線は,風のシアーおよび相当温位を用いて解析した結果,亜熱帯ジェット気流に伴う前線として確認された.
    寒帯気団は5月中は大陸上でも勢力が強く,その南限で寒帯前線を形成しているが,6月以降になると海洋を中心として存在するようになる.海洋上では40°N付近が寒帯気団の南限となっており,その勢力が強い梅雨前期においても,寒帯気団が梅雨前線まで達することはない.
  • 斎藤 毅
    1988 年 61 巻 8 号 p. 632-642
    発行日: 1988/08/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper traces a trend in the methodological study of geographic education from the turning point of the 1970s in Japan, and points out the problems for its further development.
    After the reformation of education in 1947, the subject of geography was divided into two subjects; a part of human geography and regional geography was put into a subject called ‘social studies’, a newly established subject in the reformation, and a part of physical geography was put into natural science. Unfortunately, the attempts of the reformation met with failure at least in the case of geographic education, because it lacked integrated geographic philosophy and methodolgy. Moreover, they had come to be much distress and stagnation in many schools.
    However, in the early 1970s, the study of geographic education entered a new era of development in many sub-fields. Studies on the modern history of geographic education, mainly after the Meiji era, emerged triggering these developments.
    Additionally, the remarkable progress of the study of cultural geography and humanistic geography promoted the growth of a new theoretical system for the study of geographic education as an interdisciplinary study of geography together with philosophy, pedagogy, child psychology, cultural anthropology and so like. In this methodology, the concept of Weltbild translated as “another world” is signficant. Weltbild is the mental geography of the world, the geography which is perceptively constructed in the mind. The author conceptualizes this as child's Weltbild deriving from Piaget's concept of “la représentation de monde chez l'enfant” with a geographic interpretation. Together with child development, “la representation de monde chez l'enfant is transferred toWissenschaftliche Weltanschauung” mainly through school education. Geographic education plays an important role with the Weltbild in this transference. Because much of this is based on hypothesis, it is necessary to clarify the structure of this représentation and transference through the fieldwork method, as developed by R. Hart, and his colleagues.
    In many ways geographic education resembles the learning of one's native language. In general, a child acquires his/her “geography” through various experiences, and thereby constructs his/her own Weltbild. As in the case of the education of native languages, children correct language that acquired by themselves in their social life, with grammer learned in school education and make their language life more fertile. The author proposes this methodology for use in the teaching of geography which he calls “genetic geographic education theory”.
    Along with this methodology, the new curriculum for oversea schools for Japanese children has already been developed, and now it is expected for domestic schools to revise in order to put them to use.
  • 村田 昌彦, 吉野 正敏
    1988 年 61 巻 8 号 p. 643-656
    発行日: 1988/08/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to clarify the rainfall variations of the Baiu, a rainy season in Japan, in the historical time and the Little Ice Age in particular. In order to reconstruct the rainfall variations in the historical time, old documents and diaries were used. The process of reconstruction was as follows: 1) Regional division based on the rainfall data for June, July and June plus July in the instrumental time was carried out using the Varimax rotated principal component analysis. With this method, Japan could be divided into eight regions for June and six regions for July and June plus July. 2) Unrotated principal component analysis was applied to the rainfall data in each region. Then the first principal component scores of each region were defined as ‘Rainfall Variation Index (RVI)’. 3) In order to reconstruct the RVIs in the historical time, regression equations were made using monthly number of days with precipitation more than 1 mm as independent variable for each region. With these equations, RVIs in the historical time were estimated.
    Comparison of RVI between in the instrumental time and in the Little Ice Age, whose boundary is set around 1900, shows that there was much rainfall in the Kanto district, East Japan, in the latter period. Moreover, it was known that there were regional differences in RVI through the ages.
    Finally, the authors pointed out that it was necessary to confirm further the reconstructed results with abundant material and to compare to other reconstruction by different kinds of proxy data.
  • 1988 年 61 巻 8 号 p. 657-659,663
    発行日: 1988/08/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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