地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
62 巻 , 11 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • 澤田 清
    1989 年 62 巻 11 号 p. 763-764
    発行日: 1989/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 西川 治
    1989 年 62 巻 11 号 p. 765-775
    発行日: 1989/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is the purpose of the present address to focus on the enlightening role of geography in the several decades preceding to the French Revolution, to caution ourselves against some faults which many geographers tend to have, to propose several global projects with which geographers in very diversified fields should deal in close cooperation, and finally to suggest the necessity of integrating the many branches of geography into a new system of “Ecumenology” that would include the discipline of Geopacifics.
    At the beginning of this year the long continued Showa period came to an end in Japan and the new era of “Heisei” started; coincidentally, this year is the two hundredth anniversary of the French Revolution.
    The historical meaning of the Revolution and its profound effects on the modernization of societies are being discussed and reconsidered by various scholars also in Japan. As a geographer I feel it necessary to awaken them an interest in the role of geography at the time of the Enlightenment. As I am, however, not a specialist in this subject, I must confine myself to the mention of two relevant articles: “Voltaire und die Geographie im Zeitalter der Aufklärung” (Weinert, 1949), and “Die Geographie in der “Encyclopédie” (Dörflinger, 1976). In addition, however, I would like to give some information on the similar effect of geography on the thought and attitude of edified leaders in the Edo period. After the middle of the 16th Century world maps and other geographic materials were brought bit by bit into Japan, from Europe directly or through China. Because the country was kept strictly in seclusion during most of the Edo period, educated people desired eagerly to acquire new information about the world through the narrow window of the Dutch Trading House at Nagasaki. The information they were able to obtain resulted in a substantial change in the world view of the intellectuals and the identification of their country. European astronomy and geography became indispensable parts of culture along with traditional learning in Japanese classics, Confucianism and Buddism. They reformed their appraisal of their own country in the light of world maps and geographic descriptions, as I have written in several papers, guided by the excellent book “Geography in early modern Japan” (Tsujita, 1971).
    I have not enough space to introduce such works; however, it is worth remarking that many enlightened scholars expressed their geopolitical opinions in various essays. For instance, such opinion leaders as NISHIKAWA Joken (1648-1724), HONDA Toshiaki (1743-1820) and SATO Nobuhiro (1769-1850) proved in comparison with foreign countries that Japan was a big and very fertile country and had enough potential to develop into a leading country if Japan could take advantage of the same trading benefits enjoyed by European countries. It is also interesting to recall such words as those of the prophetic writer HAYASHI Shihei (1738-1793): “Exceedingly important is geography ! Those officers engaged in the government who have no geographic knowledge are bound to fail both in times of war and of peace.”
    The second point of my address is to point out some unfavorable habits into which many geographers, especially younger ones, are liable to fall.
    The first of them is the capricious character already criticized by Prof. W. Bunge (1973) as follows: “Instead of an accumulation of concepts, what we witness and endure in geography are purges... Environmentalism was decimated by quantification which in turn is threatened by the geography of the human condition. This is exceptionalism among the sciences.”
  • 上野 健一
    1989 年 62 巻 11 号 p. 776-791
    発行日: 1989/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    温帯低気圧通過時の一時間降水強度に現われる地域性と日本列島内の地形起伏との関係を解析した.一時間降水量分布に対してスケールの異なる空間平均をほどこし, 3種類のメッシュデータを作成した.半径約50km以上の空間平均により数10kmオーダーの局地的な空間変動は平均化され,低気圧の東進に伴う降水強度の弱い地域の進行,および南岸に卓越する100kmスケールの多降水量域が明らかとなった.各メッシュデータ間の差の分布は,それぞれ約50km・約100kmの空間スケールであった.前者の分布と20kmの谷埋め法による切峰面図の600m以上の山岳域とはよい対応をみた.一方,後者の分布は南岸の多降水域および南に豊後・紀伊水道や伊勢湾が開けた地域に出現した.これらの空間スケールの違う偏差分布より,総降水量50-100mm程度の温帯低気圧時にも,各山岳域による地形性降水と,水蒸気流入を決定する水道や大山脈が一時間降水分布に大きく影響を与えていることが明らかとなった.
  • 篠原 秀一
    1989 年 62 巻 11 号 p. 792-811
    発行日: 1989/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    銚子における漁港漁業の発展を,資源基盤,水揚漁船の集中と近代化,漁港整備の各要素から検討した.銚子における漁獲物の水揚地である銚子漁港では, 1973年から1984年まで,マイワシ,マサバ,サンマといった多獲性大衆魚を主要魚種として水揚量が増加した.この水揚量の増加は,回遊魚であるマイワシ、マサバなどを漁獲する近海旋網漁船が全国各地から銚子沖の漁場に集中し,その大量の漁獲物を銚子漁港に水揚げしてきたためである.近海旋網漁船はその近代化により大量漁獲を可能にした.とくに,漁船の大型化,新装備の導入を伴う1そうまき操業の一般化,カラースキャンニングソナーと気象衛星NOAA情報受画装置を中心とする主要装備の体系化は,近海旋網漁船の生産性を向上させた.銚子漁港の本格的整備は,特定第3種漁港に指定された1960年以後で,水揚漁船の安全と大型化を保障し,近海旋網漁船によるマサバとマイワシの水揚量増加に対応していた.
  • 川村 隆一
    1989 年 62 巻 11 号 p. 812-822
    発行日: 1989/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The usefulness of complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis for quasi-periodic propagating phenomena is discussed using the sea surface temperature data in the equatorial Pacific. The features of the complex EOF analysis are as follows:
    1) It is easy to interpret physically a propagating phenomenon since it can be explained with a complex eigenmode in the complex EOF analysis. The usual EOF analysis, however, most likely extracts plural eigenmodes for the propagating phenomenon.
    2) The complex EOF analysis has the advantage of separating some propagating modes with near frequency domain.
    3) Time-space structure of the quasi-periodic propagating mode can be reconstructed by the extracted principal complex eigenmode.
    This analysis is also compared with the extended EOF analysis.
  • 1989 年 62 巻 11 号 p. 823-825,830
    発行日: 1989/11/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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