地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
64 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の5件中1~5を表示しています
  • 菅野 洋光
    1991 年 64 巻 4 号 p. 225-243
    発行日: 1991/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    北極域からユーラシア大陸東部中高緯度における気団の成層状態・分布,およびその季節変化を明らかにした・月平均気温平年値を用い・北極域 (A気団)・ユーラシア大陸東部, (Pc気団)・オホーツク海 (Pm気団)・ベーリング海 (Pm気団)の4つの気団発現域を判別した.それぞれの気団発現域での成層状態はほぼ同時期に変化する傾向があり,その結果に基づいて,1985年を,ステージ1(10.月21日~2月28日)・II (3月1日~4月15日)・皿 (4月16日~6月10日)・IV (6月11日~8月31日)・V (9月1日~10月20日)の5つのステージに区分した.ステージごとに気温と相当温位の鉛直分布を検討したところ, A気団は年間をとおして成層が安定であり,その上限は700~850mbに認められた. Pc気団は,ステージI・II・Vでは成層が安定, III・IVでは不安定であり,その上限は700~850mbに認められた.オホーツク海のPm気団は,ステージIII・IVで形成され,その上限は850mbであった.気団の境界はステージの変わり目の時期とほぼ同じ時期に南北に変位しており,気団の成層状態と分布には対応が認められた.
  • 野中 健一
    1991 年 64 巻 4 号 p. 244-264
    発行日: 1991/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究は,身近に存在する生物と人間とのかかわりが,地域の自然・人文環境とどのように関連しているのかについて,大正期から昭和20年代にいたる時期の長良川流域における淡水魚介類の漁撈と食用を事例として考察したものである.考察の結果は以下のように要約できる.
    長良川流域は,河況と魚介類の棲息相から8地域に区分でき,各地域の漁撈と食用の形態はそれに相応して異なる.漁撈は生業との時間的競合,漁具購入費用,漁撈蔑視観などによって制約されており,また,淡水魚介類の味,調理の容易さ,海産魚介類との競合などが食用に影響を及ぼしている.とくに積極的な漁撈活動はアユなど特定の魚種の商品価値の高まりによってもたらされた.
  • 阿部 一
    1991 年 64 巻 4 号 p. 265-279
    発行日: 1991/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Changes in architecture reflect interactions among social groups, each of which seems to have a certain “meaning matrix” that is the implicit knowledge required for understanding the meaning of things. Disagreements over meaning matrices occasionally bring about laws regulating the style of architecture. In this paper, the author examines the relation between law and the architecture of Japanese “lovers' inns, ” which are inns with eye-catching facades and screened entrances, catering to couples for short-time or overnight stays, from the viewpoint of the interaction of two social groups; the owners of these inns and local residents.
    1) The historical changes in lovers' inns architecture are as follows:
    1950s: Inns displaying hot spring symbols were located in city centers.
    1960s-early 1970s: Western-style architecture appeared, and “gorgeous” motels imitating Western castles or cruisers proliferated along suburban highways.
    Late 1970s-1980s: The appearance of love-hotels (lovers' inns located on urban streets) has become “subdued.”
    2) The owners and planners of lovers' inns have had a tendency to use striking decor in order to attract people's attention.
    3) Local residents have a desire to conceal things concerning sex, which results in demands for a “subdued” appearance and the exclusion of lovers' inns from residential areas.
    4) Reflecting the viewpoint of local residents, regulations covering the appearance, the inside structure, and the location of lovers' inns have been established.
    5) The relation between law, architecture, and meaning matrices is shown in Fig. 4. Owners and planners build the inns. Local residents perceive the inns' appearance through their own meaning matrix. When the architecture is not acceptable to the local residents, laws are established, which are implicitly recognized by them. The owners understand the laws and change the style of architecture.
  • 山下 博樹
    1991 年 64 巻 4 号 p. 280-295
    発行日: 1991/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The cities of Hachioji and Machida, located in the western suburb of Tokyo, have developed with the expansion of the Tokyo metropolitan area. But the two cities have different histories. Hachioji city was a stage town (shuhubamachi) in the late feudal period, and developed into a central city in the Tama area after the Meiji Restoration. Machida does not have such a long history; it deve-loped as an urban area only after the opening of the national railways' Yokohama Line and the private Odakyu Line in the late. The author analyzed the processes of change in the central business district (CBD) structure of the two cities, using such indicators as the change in functional accu-mulation, location of multi-storied buildings, and change in floor use for each function, with the comparison being made between 1981 and 1987.
    The following are a few results in the differences of changes of CBDs in the two cities.
    1) The differences in the function of CBDs in the two cities can be explained by differences in the process of accumulation. Hachioji has experienced a shift of the core of its CBD from Koshu-kaido highway to Hachioji station, and its CBD has been differentiated functionally. But in Machida, because the CBD developedd near the station of the Odakyu Line, various functions already existed there. The survey also shows a reductive tendency in the area which serves some functions of the CBD (Figs. 1-3, Tables 1-4).
    2) The differences in shape between the two CBDs can also be observed from a survey of the locations of multi-storied buildings. In Hachioji, the density of those buildings which were located on the three main streets stretching away from the station in 1981 has increased since 1981, and there is now a cluster of them in front of the station. In Machida, the number of multi-storied buildings which could be seen in the core of the CBD has increased in area surrounding it. The difference in the process of forming the CBD in the two cities reflects the differences in building use in the two CBDs (Fig. 4, Table 5).
    3) The cluster analysis for changes in floor use reveals the degree of the functional areal differ-entiation in each of the CBDs. In Hachioji, three kinds of clusters can be recognized separately: offices, personal services, and parking and vacant lots. In Machida, the cluster which changed to office use is dominant. The comparison between present and previous functions of each floor in the buildings of the two CBDs shows the difference in the CBD development processes (Fig. 5).
    Those differences can be explained by both the historical background and the CBD development processes. Hachioji experienced functional areal differentiation in the shift of its CBD core. But Machida developed into a satellite city after the railroads opened in the Meiji period. As a result, the functions in the CBD have accumulated differently.
  • 1991 年 64 巻 4 号 p. 296-299,302_2
    発行日: 1991/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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