地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
65 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • 矢澤 大二
    1992 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 295-296
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 水野 勲
    1992 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 297-319
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿の目的は,開拓期の人口移動を熱力学のアナロジー(類比)により定式化したHotellingのモデルを取り上げ,それをブリュッセル学派による非線形非平衡システムの枠組みを通して再構築することにある.それは,従来の数理地理学の多くのモデルの特質である決定論的,普遍的な枠組みに代わって,人間の自由意志や事象の多様性を考慮しうるモデルを作る試みである.
    再構築されたモデルは多くの型の動態を内包しており,従来の力学,熱力学のモデルとは違って,不均衡や不安定性がシステムの自己組織化をうながすきっかけになる.ほとんどの場合にシステムは決定論的に記述されるが,いったん分岐点にいたると,そこでは偶然性が重要な役割を演じることになる.こうしたモデルによって,明治・大正期の北海道開拓の事例が可能論的に解釈された.
  • 長谷川 裕彦
    1992 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 320-338
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    北アルプス南西部,笠ヶ岳北面の打込谷において,最終氷期後半の亜氷期のモレーンと姶良Tn火山灰 (AT) の層位関係,および同地域の氷河地形発達史を明らかにした.氷河地形,とくにモレーンの分布から,打込谷における氷河前進期は古い方から順に一ノ沢期・二俣期・右俣期・北圏谷期の4期に区分される,一ノ沢期のラテラルモレーン上および二俣期のメディアルモレーン・グランドモレーン上からATが発見された.二俣期は,ATがティルの直上に堆積していることからAT降灰直前と考えられ,白馬岳松川北股入の赤倉沢期 (25,000y. B. P.) に対比される.同時に,二俣期のグランドモレーン上でのATの分布から, AT降灰時には氷河がかなり縮小していたことが明らかとなった.氷河地形の開析の程度から,一ノ沢期は最終氷期前半の亜氷期に,二俣期・右俣期・北圏谷期は後半の亜氷期にそれぞれ対比される.
  • 須貝 俊彦
    1992 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 339-353
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    碓氷川流域には,連続性のよい3段の河成面が発達する.これらの形成過程は,「まず,上流側で下に凸の大曲率の河床形態をもつ谷が埋積される.次に,下流側で側刻が行なわれて,全体として急勾配かつ直線的な河床縦断面形が生じる.後に,下刻が進んで段丘化し,再び大曲率をもつ河床縦断面形になる」というサイクリックな河床変動を示している.この河床変動には,氷期一間氷期という気候変化が関与したと考えられる.段丘面を覆うテフラ層序から,低位面の谷の埋積は,最終氷期後半の立川期に生じ,中位・高位面の谷の埋積は,最終間氷期に先立つ寒冷期に生じたと推定される.
    段丘面が若くなるにつれ,谷埋めの位置は上流側へ移動していった.下刻が進むにつれ,河川勾配が緩くなり,それに伴って掃流力が減少し,埋積期における礫の運搬・堆積部分がしだいに上流側に限定されてくるという河川勾配の時系列的変化によるものと思われる.
  • 白井 哲之, 山口 幸男
    1992 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 354-363
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This symposium was organized to discuss the findings of the Second Geography Education Committee of the Association of Japanese Geographers under the joint auspices of The Japanese Association of Professional Geographers. Today we face very serious global problems such as environmental pollution and changing international relations, which must be important themes in geography education. Many geographic educators in Japan, however, have not learned how to present these issues and problems in a geography class. The members of the Second Geography Education Committee examined and discussed three themes initially, and then the findings were presented and discussed in this symposium as follows. (The names followed by asterisks are those of the authors who served as reporters.)
    (1) K. Yoshida* and H. Iwamoto: The significance of place-name study in the classroom: a pilot survey of place-name recognition among the public (“non-geographers”)
    The authors surveyed through questionnaires 200 adults regarding place-names in Japan which are recognized as essentiall learning for students in compulsory education. Almost all respondents answered that students should learn the names of the four big islands, the eight regions and the forty-three prefectures of Japan. As a consequence, they concluded that the minimum essentials of place-names, which would be extracted by a full-scale survey, should be included in a geography curriculum. On the other hand, T. Ohtani commented that it was inappropriate to pick out and discuss only place-names without further context. He emphasized that it is very important for geographic educators to consider what to teach in a geography class. While some participants agreed with him, others said that minimum essentials of place-names should be taught.
    (2) N. Tanikawa* and A. Ohno: How geographic educators can contribute to environmental education
    The authors emphasized that many geographic educators have dealt with environmental pollution in their classes, while professional geographers have not discussed this issue in academic geography. According to their opinion, students can appreciate the environment and even develop a sense of environmentalism after attaining an understanding of the mechanisms of nature and society. They therefore suggested that geographic educators can promote environmental education through teaching both physical and human geography in their geography classes. M. Nakayama commented that students can understand the environment through the landscape when considering the relationship between nature and human life. Many participants were involved with the discussion of how geography education could contribute to environmental education. Some others pointed out that many professional geographers did not join in on discussions of the environmental issues.
    (3) Y. Nishiwaki* and K. Hirasawa: Cross-cultural understanding in geography education The authors suggested that geographic educators should help students develop their world view in the context of a world geography class. This is even more important in today's world since students receive an increasing amount of information regarding different world regions through the mass media. It therefore behooves geographic educators to assume a more active role in clarifying and developing these initial, incomplete and sometimes misleading impressions presented to children through mass media. In their opinion, it is necessary for students to view cultural differences with a sympathetic understanding. This is especially true now since developments in various regions of the world have global implications. In short, people worldwide are becoming increasingly influenced by international events. It was also emphasized that geographic educators should foster a greater student awareness of cultural conflicts and changes common to various societies in the world.
  • 1992 年 65 巻 4 号 p. 364-368,370_2
    発行日: 1992/04/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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