地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
65 巻 , 6 号
選択された号の論文の3件中1~3を表示しています
  • 関根 智子
    1992 年 65 巻 6 号 p. 441-459
    発行日: 1992/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究では,研究地域として岩手県盛岡市を選び,施設規模と需要密度を考慮した生活関連施設への近接性を測定した.8指標に対し,居住地区(1キロ・メッシュ)を4等分し,それらの4つの中心点ごとに利用可能な施設単位数を測定し,その平均値に基づき地域分類を行なった.
    その結果,近接性からみた居住地区の生活環境は,「非常に良い」から「非常に悪い」の5レベルに分けられた。中心部には,生活環境の「非常に良い」地区がみられた.「普通」の地区は, DIDの内部とほぼ一致しており,さらに,ニュータウンとその周辺でもみられた.DIDの外側では,生活環境は急激に悪化した.居住地区における利用可能な施設単位数の最高値,最低値に対しても同様に地域分類を行ない,平均値と比較した.地区内変動の激しい地区は,ニュータウン周辺とDID内のコミュニティ・センター周辺であり,センターに近い地点では生活環境が良いが,そこから離れると急激に低下した.居住地区間と居住地区内における近接性からみた生活環境の変動を比較すると,居住地区内では3レベルとかなり大きな変動がみられるが,居住地区間では5レベルとさらに大きく変動しており,地区間の比較分析がより重要であることが明らかとなった.
  • 荒木 一視
    1992 年 65 巻 6 号 p. 460-475
    発行日: 1992/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since World War II Japanese villages have been transformed dramatically. With the shortage of agricultural labor in Japan, villages today have been hurt by the problems of an aging labor force. The Japanese government tried to reorganize the agricultural structure after World War II. But many farmers who hold small cultivated plots have maintained their operations. Under such conditions, it is important to research agricultural change from the point of view of how cultivation is maintained. Nevertheless, at this point in time, few investigations have provided detailed case studies. In particular, it is rare to find a case reported from the view of agricultural production from the agricultural labor side.
    This paper aims to clarify the mechanism of agricultural continuance by means of a detailed case study in Takamiya-cho, a village in Hiroshima Prefecture.
    The methodology is as follows. In the previous studies on the shortage of supply of agricultural labor, in addition to many discussions of part-time farmer, two main labor supply source systems have been discussed. One of them is the “weekend farmer” who lives outside his home village and returns to the village to help with his family's farm in the busy farming seasons or on weekends. The other is the trust system of agricultural lands and works. The former is a phenomenon that occurs in individual farm households, but the latter is a system that occurs in groups of farm households. This study investigates how these two systems function in a village with an aged population. Three types of farmer can be classified according to the labor supply situation.
    The first type is the successor who lives with his aged parents and works in the non-agricultural sector. Where this type of farm household is prevalent, cultivation can be continued because the agricultural labor force will be reproduced even with part-time farming. In such a situation only rice will be cultivated, by a small labor force using agricultural machinery.
    In the second type, the agricultural labor force is supplied by “weekend farmers.” In this type cultivation is maintained by the labor supply system in each farm household itself. The labor supply of “weekend farmers” is available for mechanized agriculture, but serious problems will occurred in the near future, because there is little probability of reproducing the agricultural labor force.
    In the third type, the labor force is supplied by an agricultural trust. This type is a labor supply system that works in groups of farm households. This type of labor supply is available not merely in villages with an aged population but also in villages where part-time farming is predominant.
  • 1992 年 65 巻 6 号 p. 476-479,494
    発行日: 1992/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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