Since World War II Japanese villages have been transformed dramatically. With the shortage of agricultural labor in Japan, villages today have been hurt by the problems of an aging labor force. The Japanese government tried to reorganize the agricultural structure after World War II. But many farmers who hold small cultivated plots have maintained their operations. Under such conditions, it is important to research agricultural change from the point of view of how cultivation is maintained. Nevertheless, at this point in time, few investigations have provided detailed case studies. In particular, it is rare to find a case reported from the view of agricultural production from the agricultural labor side. This paper aims to clarify the mechanism of agricultural continuance by means of a detailed case study in Takamiya-cho, a village in Hiroshima Prefecture. The methodology is as follows. In the previous studies on the shortage of supply of agricultural labor, in addition to many discussions of part-time farmer, two main labor supply source systems have been discussed. One of them is the “weekend farmer” who lives outside his home village and returns to the village to help with his family's farm in the busy farming seasons or on weekends. The other is the trust system of agricultural lands and works. The former is a phenomenon that occurs in individual farm households, but the latter is a system that occurs in groups of farm households. This study investigates how these two systems function in a village with an aged population. Three types of farmer can be classified according to the labor supply situation. The first type is the successor who lives with his aged parents and works in the non-agricultural sector. Where this type of farm household is prevalent, cultivation can be continued because the agricultural labor force will be reproduced even with part-time farming. In such a situation only rice will be cultivated, by a small labor force using agricultural machinery. In the second type, the agricultural labor force is supplied by “weekend farmers.” In this type cultivation is maintained by the labor supply system in each farm household itself. The labor supply of “weekend farmers” is available for mechanized agriculture, but serious problems will occurred in the near future, because there is little probability of reproducing the agricultural labor force. In the third type, the labor force is supplied by an agricultural trust. This type is a labor supply system that works in groups of farm households. This type of labor supply is available not merely in villages with an aged population but also in villages where part-time farming is predominant.