The recent influx of foreigners to the Tokyo metropolitan area has created various social issues concerning foreigners' riving environment. To obtain an idea of their residential mobility and spatial distribution, a questionnaire survey was undertaken on foreign pre-college students at Japanese language schools in Tokyo. The data on their residence changes revealed the following points. Intra-urban migration of pre-college students comprises two components: external constraints and individual decision-making. Accessibility to school, low rent, and available information sources function as the major socio-economic determinants of residence change. The initiatives of the pre-college students are exerted in trade-off behaviors balancing transportation cost and rent, utilization of personal information network, psychological adjustment through spatial learning, and cohabitation with fellow countrypersons. Individual subjectivity intensifies its role in the second and third destination selection, consequently precipitating the three mobility patterns of centripetal, stager, and centrifugal movement in respect to school. The chain process of migration accelerated by cohabitation and information network consolidates the actualization of apartment-level ethnic concentrations. But the dispersed distribution of low-rent wooden apartments in the Tokyo metropolitan area prevents the outbreak of ward-scale segregation. For further understanding of the mechanism of foreign new comers' residential mobility, more detailed psychological aspects of their lives, including the fundamental purpose of their stay in Japan, need to be investigated in the context of urban society.
Although there are many active faults in Northeast Japan, only a few of the faults in the inner zone have been investigated in detail. The Kitakami Lowland, running parallel to the volcanic front of Northeast Japan, is a typical tectonic depression delineated by active faults. In this paper, the past large seismic activities and fault structure of the Uwandaira Fault Group (central part of the western boundary faults), west of Hanamaki City, are discussed mainly based on trench excavation across the southern part of the fault group. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Two events are inferred along the Uwandaira Fault Group since the later stadial of the Last Glacial; the latest one occurred ca. 4, 000 to 6, 000, and the one before that, later than ca. 20, 000 years ago. (2) The time interval of the events is rather long, and is estimated as several to ten thousand years. It is, however, possible that the fault will generate a large seismic event in the near future. (3) A series of sediments on the trench walls are cut by low-angle thrust faults, which caused large horizontal shortening. The structure of the sediments suggests that the fault plane dips even less beneath the trench floor. (4) The net slip on the fault plane at each event was about 2m, and the average slip rate of the fault is estimated to be on the order of 10-1m/1, 000 years.