地理学評論 Ser. A
Online ISSN : 2185-1735
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
69 巻 , 7 号
選択された号の論文の14件中1~14を表示しています
  • 松田 磐余, 吉越 昭久, 中林 一樹
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 467-468_2
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 康弘, 渡辺 満久, 吾妻 崇, 岡田 篤正
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 469-482
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    兵庫県南部地震は,なぜそこにいま発生したのか?この地震が偶発的なものではないことは明らかであるが,現時点でこの問いに明確に答えることはできない.これは地震防災にとっても本質的な課題である.問題解決のためにまず必要なことは,当地域のテクトニックな背景や,地震断層および活断層の分布や活動史といった,地震発生にいたる「場」の条件を明らかにすることである.そして,そのなかに今回の地震を正確に位置づけることであり,このことは地理学に課せられた重要課題である.本稿においては,地震後に実施した変動地形調査と古地震調査によってこれまでに明らかになった点を整理し,地震防災をめざす立場から,変動地形学的・古地震学的調査の重要性と今後の課題を展望する.
  • 星野 実, 村上 広史, 水越 博子, 山後 公二
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 483-492
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake (M=7.2, epicenter: 34.36°N, 135.0.2°E, depth =17.9km) occurred on January 17, 1995, and made the Nojima fault appear on the ground surface on Awaji Island. The Geographical Survey Institute surveyed the fault just after the earthquake on January 18-22 and February 13-17. The fault was a right-lateral fault with a reverse component. The maximum displacement measured on the ground along the fault was 1.7 meters in the horizontal (rightlateral) and 1.3 meters in the vertical direction in Nojima-Hirabayashi.
    The detailed measurement of ground surface displacement around a fault has been only available in terms of the relative movement of one side of the fault against the other. The authors succeeded in measuring three dimensional displacement of 880 points around the Nojima fault by employing air photos taken before and after the earthquake.
    The characteristics of the displacement are: l) on the west side of the fault, the maximum horizontal displacement is 3.4 meters and directed toward the east, but the amount and direction of the vertical displacement change in a complex manner; 2) the horizontal displacement on the east side is more than one meter and directed toward the south or southeast. In addition, large displacement can be found even in areas more than one kilometer from the fault line.
    The displacement patterns around the fault are considered consistent with those caused by eastwest compression with eastward movement on the west side and southward movement on the east side:
    The ground survey identified the southern end of the fault at Toshima. However, the horizontal displacement around the fault can be considered to show invisible continuation of the fault down to Tonouchi
  • 石井 武政, 風早 康平, 安原 正也, 丸井 敦尚, 佐藤 努
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 493-503
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper outlines the water chemistry and stable carbon isotopes of water collected from Kobe city and an adjacent area where the so-called seismic damage belt appeared due to the Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake of 1995. Based on the borehole data, a high-temperature anomaly of groundwater is recognized in Kobe and Amagasaki, trending in a northeast to southwest direction. This direction roughly coincides with that of active faults around the Rokko Mountains.
    From the water chemistry, Cl ion and total CO2 are relatively rich in high-temperature groundwater, which resembles the typical features of hot water from the Arima Hot Springs about 10 km north of downtown Kobe. Furthermore, the values of the stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) indicate that the high-temperature groundwater contains carbonate originating from the hot water of deeper aquifers. It is inferred that a hot water reservoir underlies the Kobe area and that the high-temperature anomaly of groundwater is formed by a mixture of shallow groundwater and deep hot water ascending through unknown concealed faults.
  • 高橋 学
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 504-517
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    現在,地震の発生を予知することは困難な状況にある.しかしながら,土地の履歴を知ることにより地震の被害を予測することは不可能ではない.埋蔵文化財の発掘調査に際し,過去の災害と土地開発の様子を詳細に検討することは,防災計画を考えるうえで重要なデータをもたらす.
    兵庫県南部地震による神戸周辺の被害状況を概観すると,高速道路や鉄道,それに駅舎などの大型建造物と,木造一戸建て住宅とでは被災した場所の土地条件が異なる.大型建造物の場合には,硬軟の地盤の境目で被害が大きい.他方,木造一戸建て住宅の被害は,微地形や埋没微地形に由来する表層部数メートルの堆積物の状況と関係が深い.原型をとどめないほど激しく破壊された家屋は,旧河道や埋没旧河道にあたる部分に多く存在した.また,木造一戸建ての倒壊による圧死者も旧河道や埋没旧河道に集中する傾向が強い.
  • 藤岡 達也
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 518-530
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the area damaged by the earthquake in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture, it is easy to see numerous slope disasters as a result of residential development on the slopes or at the foot of mountains. In almost all of these developments, natural topographical features (hills and valleys) have been artificially transformed into smooth land.
    The author cites Some examples of some damaged dwellings on the slopes or at the foot of mountains in Kobe City, Nishinomiya City, Takarazuka City and Itami City. These examples are analyzed from the point of view of geological structure, conditions of topographical features, and method of development. It is obvious that the relationship between urbanization and natural conditions generated such damage. The earthquake made clear the danger of development on slope areas. As the result of investigations, it is concluded that the damage to dwellings can be classified into four types:
    1) cases affected by topographical features before development, where dwellings were built on former rivers or valleys;
    2) cases affected by the method of construction, where dwellings were built on the boundary be tween banking and cutting;
    3) slope destruction of weathered granite or secondary sediment, where dwellings were damaged by falling sand and rocks; and
    4) damaged dwellings built on lots raised high above ground level on deep filled-in soil.
    The difference between type 2 and type 4, can be seen in the degree of base wall destruction. In type 3, the cause was the method of fixing the cliff wall rather than in construction of dwelling foundations. Thus the same kind of damage could occur even after a heavy rain.
    In conclusion, dwelling foundations and topographical features are both important in the occurrencee of damage as well as the impact of an earthquake itself.
  • 内田 和子
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 531-546
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    There are many farm ponds in the western part of Japan and they play important and essential roles in rice field agriculture. Hyogo Prefecture has 51, 679 farm ponds, the most of any Japanese prefecture. Of the farm ponds in Hyogo Prefecture, 1, 372 were damaged by the Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake on January 17, 1995.
    The author attempted to clarify the geographical features of those damaged farm ponds. First research was conducted on relationships between damaged farm ponds in Hyogo Prefecture, excluding Awaji Island, and their topography, geology and structure. Damaged farm ponds are located on valley plains, terraces, small fans and boundaries between two topographies, for example, terrace and valley plain, terrace and back marsh, etc. The subsurface geology of damaged farm ponds are Holocene deposits, terrace deposits (Pleistocene deposits), Osaka Group (Pleistocene deposits), Kobe Group (Pleistocene deposits) and Arima Group (Miocene deposits). Furthermore, they are classified by structure as valley closed ponds (tani-ike in Japanese) that enclose valley plains with embankments and flat ponds (sara-ike) that are surrounded by large embankments on an almost fiat surface. Farm ponds located on valley plains of which the subsurface geology is Holocene deposits are very easily damaged during an earthquake, because their bottom gradients are steep and their grounds are weak or unstable.
    Next, the author conducted research for owners of damaged farm ponds to clarify their superannuation and history of repair. It was found that most severely damaged farm ponds were old and had not been repaired for many years. Few of the old ponds were only slightly damaged or undamaged. Farm ponds that were built more than 200 years ago and have not been repaired in the past 50 years are very susceptible to earthquake damage.
  • 藤岡 ひろ子
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 547-558
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake caused damage of various kinds in Kobe City. Supplies of electricity, gas, and water immediately came to a full stop. Roads and railways were destroyed. Administrative control functions of the single-center system were paralyzed and organization of rescue activities by small communities became necessary.
    This article aims to investigate emergency water supply systems in the sake-brewing areas of Kobe and to propose the necessity for local control systems and preservation of water resources.
    Sake-brewing industries are located on recent alluvial fan areas with rich groundwater resources. Groundwater is drawn from many wells located throughout these regions. The regions under study, Nada-nishi-sango, belong to the outer transitional areas, bordered by residential districts on the north, and by reclaimed industrial-use land on the south. The land use is a mix of residential, industrial, and commercial functions.
    Under the difficult conditions of heavy damage, sake brewerers used their resources to supply emergency water to help quake victims. Just after the earthquake, water preserved in tanks for use in sake brewing was supplied. Next, water from wells and after that water from the city's special water supply system for the exclusive use of the sake breweries was utilized.
    The quantity and quality of water from all wells were inspected regularly under the meticulous control of the sake brewers' union. In 1973, the brewers' union funded construction of the city's special water supply system for the union's exclusive use, as a countermeasure against a possible decline of groundwater due to the development of surrounding areas. This emergency water supply to neighboring victims, evacuation centers, and hospitals continued from January 17th to early March.
    It is recommended that the city's renewal plan adopts the following proposals. Large quantities of water are needed after an earthquake in a metropolitan area, and water reservoirs for such needs should be built and controlled by small communities for easy access. Kobe has good groundwater resources, but such resources are in danger of deterioration due to destruction of the natural environment accompanied by regional development. As seen in the example of sake-brewing areas, networks based on small area units should be prepared as measures against disasters. Future tasks should include inspection and preservation of old wells no longer being used.
    In transitional areas of large cities, rapid industrial growth typical of harbor cities has caused deterioration of both the social and natural environments. The government's delay in making needed improvements, compounded by an expanding aged population and by the large number of rotting old wooden dwellings, intensified the losses caused by the earthquake. In land use planning for the city's renewal, preservation of the natural environment and improvement of the social environment should be kept in mind.
  • 石井 素介, 山崎 憲治, 生井 貞行, 内田 博幸, 岡沢 修一
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 559-578
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    この報告は,阪神・淡路大震災の被害の地域構造を,犠牲者多発地区の特性ならびに避難所の実態から探るものである.震災犠牲者は社会的弱者である老人・女性に集中した.激甚な被害は神戸市都心周辺部の老朽密集住宅地・住工混在地域で顕著であった.これは,現代の大都市に内在する構造的弱点と社会的弱者に震災の重圧がかかり,その衝撃を契機としてこれらの矛盾が一挙に露呈されたものとみることができる.
    地震の発生に際して,被害の程度を軽減させるうえで地域コミュニティの果たした役割は大きい.初期消火,住民の安否確認,生き埋め者の救出を短時間のうちに行なうには,地域社会がどのように形成・維持・展開されてきたかが大きなかかわりをもつ.とくに都市部では地元の濃密な人間関係の解体が進んでおり,それがインナーシティ問題に直結して被害の拡大に影響している.
    地震直後,被災者はまず安全・近接・公共の空間を求あ,大多数が近隣の学校に避難した.元来学校は防災計画上の避難所として指定されていたが,受け入れ態勢は万全ではなかった.しかし多数の被災住民が殺到するなかで,学校は地域社会の中核に位置する公共空問として事実上重大な役割を果たした.学校避難所の運営は被災住民と行政の間に立って多くの困難に直面した.自身被災者でもある教職員が仲介役として多面的な役割を果たした場合も多い.学校避難所の推移には地域の被災程度や自治組織確立度如何によって多様な類型がみられた.しかし,緊急事態への対応として経験した避難者救援活動のなかで生まれてきた教職員・ボランティア・地域住民間の連帯の萌芽は,今後の震災からの復興過程においても,地域コミュニティ再建への道標として,重要な示唆となるであろう.この震災体験は,地域を場として将来の地域の担い手を育てる地理教育にとっても,課題として活かすべき多様な示唆を含むものといえよう.
  • 関口 辰夫, 福島 康博, 根本 寿男
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 579-594
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake which occurred on January 17, 1995, caused enormous damage such as collapse of buildings, fires, liquefaction of the ground, etc. It was the worst disaster since the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923. The Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) started taking color aerial photographs immediately after the earthquake and drew an Earthquake Damage Map (First Edition; Map I) by photo interpretation, for the purpose of preparing fundamental data for investigation and restoration. Items included in Earthquake Damage Map I were “collapsed buildings and houses, ”“fires (burnt areas), ” “damaged roads and railroads, ” “slope failure and landslides, ” “liquefaction of the ground, ” “damaged quay, ”and“earthquake faults.”After that, other organaizations started similar investigations. In drawing the Earthquake Damage Map (Second Edition; Map II), the investigated areas were extended and other data were also used. Items included fundamentally followed Map I, although “collapsed buildings and houses” were newly classified into four categories, and two new items, “suspended sections of damaged roads and railroads, ” and “fissures” were added.
    Earthquake Damage Map I drawn up and utilized immediately after the earthquake was highly esteemed. After that, investigations by other organizations showed earthquake damage similar to that in Earthquake Damage Map I. Therefore, the accuracy of Map I was confirmed. We examined the items included, and method of publication and prarctical use in the process of drawing up Earthquake Damage Map. It was found that photo interpretation of “fire (burnt areas), ” “damaged roads and railroads, ” and “liquefaction of the ground, ” was fairly easy, but that of “collapsed buildings and houses” and “slope failures and landslides” was comparatively difficult. Thus we recognized the limits of photo interpretation ability.
    By drawing a distribution map of each kind of disaster based on the Earthquake Damage Maps, it was obvious that damaged buildings were mainly distributed in a zone from Suma Ward, Kobe City, to Nishinomiya City. We examined the relationship between damaged buildings, houses and landform. As a result, it was hypothesized that the primary factor in the damage concentration area was mainly earthquake motion because there was little influence of structures, landform and topography. After the Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake we recognized that it is very important to collect and publish information on damage quickly in an emergency. The GIS and the Internet were utlized in this earthquake disaster. Therefore, it is expected that new technology will be utilized more extensively in the future.
  • 藤井 正
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 595-606
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The damage caused by an earthquakes does not relate only to the conditions of the natural environment. After the Southern Hyogo Prefectural Earthquake of 1995, many natural scientists addressed the spatial features of the damage, which formed a “belt” between the coastline and the mountains. But the damage was also caused by human and social conditions, related to the urban structure. This kind of situation which is affected by many kinds of natural and social conditions in each region, is studied using a geographic information system (GIS). Analyzing urban earthquake disasters using GIS may also be useful to simulate potential damage for disaster preventation in other cities. The final purpose of this research therefore is to develop such a method of GIS.
    The most appropriate spatial unit to analyze earthquake damage is the town district. Architects have already started to analyze the unit of individual building but this approach has some problems:
    The data and work volumes are huge and a large GIS is needed, so that we cannot develop such a brief system for use in other areas easily; Precise data on each buildings are private information and thus not easy to access; And spatial location is not crucial to the analysis of architectural structures.
    Consequently, the unit of a town district is a more convenient approach from the viewpoint of urban structure or urban planning. It can also include community data and so contribute to urban planning directly, for example, regarding the location of open space.
    In the case of Higashinada Ward in the eastern part of Kobe City, which recorded the largest number of persons killed by the earthquake, a “belt” of damaged buildings was found and studied by many natural scientists. Some assumed that a new hidden fault line existed along the belt. But the urban structure of Kobe City itself comprises a “belt” structure. Thus, before searching for such a fault line, we, need to analyze the relationship between urban structure and _disasters using data sources on the damage. There are maps of the distribution of damaged buildings, as recorded by City Planning Institute of Japan and Architectural Institute of Japan, and data from newspapers on the location of fatalities. We can also use general data sources regarding urbanization, for example, maps, aerophotos, and census data, because we need to be able to apply the same system in other cities.
    As shown in Fig.l, the damage is different even inside the “belt.” Generally, the collapse rate of building was extremely high in the built-up area in 1948, which suvived bombing during World War II.
    There were also some damaged districts near the coast outside the “belt, ” because of the same reason. Most areas along the coast were bombed and burned in World War II, so the buildings were rebuilt and relatively newer there, and were not severely damaged. In some old districts, many buildings were rebuilt after World War II for example, in the district along R. 43 which is the main industrial road between Osaka and Kobe. At the foot of the mountains in the north of this area, few old buildings were damaged sumed to be due to good topological conditions and the higher social class of the residents.
    In the eastern part of this area, many districts that were urbanized after World War II were severely damaged, because here were built many low-cost, cheap wooden apartments for young workers as shown in Fig. 2.
    Figure 3 shows that high death-rate districts correspond to the severely damaged districts shown in Fig. 1, and that not all the districts where many elderly people lived (Fig. 4) had a high death rate of the elderly, due to the superior conditions of the buildings.
    GIS analysis is very effective in studying the spatial factors of disasters in urban areas where complicated elements exist.
  • 今野 修平
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 607-624
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    大都市密集地域を襲った阪神・淡路大震災は,同時に日本列島を支える主軸交通が一点に集まる地域を直撃した.この結果主軸交通は切断され,機能的に日本列島は東西に分断された.しかも主軸交通施設の復旧は時間を要し,被災後1年を経過しても未だに復旧工事途中の施設も多い.この結果は日本列島の広範にわたり大きな損失と影響を与えたのみか,海外にまで及んで,日本列島の構造まで変えるのではないかと懸念される問題があるなど,考察すべき問題は多い.本稿では,震災を受けた主軸交通の影響の解析と考察から,国土への影響を予察した.
    その上に立って,今後の国土のあり方について,課題を整理し,抽出したものである.災害発生の影響は,とかく直接被害を出した被災地域にのみ眼が向けられがちだが,経済社会の変化とともに,国際社会や国民経済全体に機能面から大きな支障をきたすようになってきぞいる.本稿は,こうした新しい時代の災害像を,地理学的に考察しようとした新しい試みでもある.
  • 戸所 隆
    1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 625-637
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    今日の都市空間には私的空間でありながら何らかの公的援助を得て,不特定多数の人々が利用する公共的な共用空間が増加している.かかる共用空間は,都市内に人々が住み続けるうえで必要不可欠なものとなりっっある.それは阪神・淡路大震災の復興まちづくりにおいても,マンションの再建,再開発・土地区画整理事業の推進や共同建て替えにおいて大きな意義をもつ。しかし,かかる共用空間を生かしたまちづくりを進めるためには,公的空間と私的空間を止揚した第3の新しい空間認識を人々がもっ必要がある.そのうえでハードとソフトの両面から共同化を図り,かかる共用空間を創出することが大切といえる.
    21世紀の都市はいかに人材を確保するかが課題となろう.そのためには都心をはじめ都市内部に居住しうる空間システムの構築が求められる.苦難のなかで共同化を図りながら復興にあたるまちづくりには, 21世紀型まちづくりの萌芽がみられる.
  • 1996 年 69 巻 7 号 p. 645-650
    発行日: 1996/07/01
    公開日: 2008/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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