This article aims to clarify Quaternary tectonic movements of the Kamikita Coastal Plain located in the non-volcanic outer arc of the Northeast Japan, based on geomorphological and tephrochronological methods. The results obtained are as follows: The Miurayama fault and the Tatsunokuchi flexure along the west margin of the plain differentiated the plain from the Ou Backbone Range and the Sannohe Hills in the early stage of Quaternary. The movement of the Tatsunokuchi flexure has been continuously active during Quaternary. This tectonic line seems to divide the area in and around the plain into two blocks, the Kamikita and Ou-Sannohe ones. E-W trending folding occurs in the northern part of the plain. Northward tilting occurring in the southern part of the plain probably reflects the upwarping of the Kitakami Mountains. Nearly N-S trending active tectonic structures suggest a crustal shortening by the E-W horizontal maximum compressional stress which was prominent in the Northeast Japan arc during Quaternary. It is, however, difficult to explain the E-W trending crustal movement under the same stress field. The whole area of the plain has successively uplifted at least in the late stage of Quaternary. Considering that the terrace deformation is related to folding and tilting, a regional uplift with a rate of 0.1-0.2 mm/yr during the past 120 ka occurs in the Kamikita Block. On the Ou-Sannohe Block, a regional uplift rate is estimated to be 0.3-0.4 mm Jyr from the activity of the Tatsunokuchi flexure. Such regional uplift probably results from either the crustal deformation associated with great earthquakes which occurred in the zone from the Japan Trench off the plain or a long-wave crustal movement of the Northeast Japan arc. Es wird versucht, nach geomorphologischen und tephrochronologischen Methoden quartäre tektonische Bewegungen von der Kamikitaebene aufzuzeigen, die im nichtvulkanischen aüβeren Teilbogen vom nordostjapanischen Inselbogen liegt. Die Kamikitaebene wurde durch die dauernde Bewegung des Miurayama Bruchs und Tatunokuchi Flexur im Jungquartär von dem Ou Gebirge und dem Sannohe Hügelland im Westen abgegrenzt. Die Aktivität der Flexur dauerte während des Quartärs. Diese Tektoniklinie scheint das Areal um die Ebene in zwei Kamikita und Ou-Sannohe Blöcke zu teilen. Die west-ostrichtende Faltung kommt im nordlichen Teil der Ebene vor. Die Schragstellung nach Norden, die im sudlichen Teil der Ebene vorzukommen, spiegelt die Aufwölbung des Kitakami Berglandes wahrscheinlich wieder. Die fast nord-südrichtenden aktiven Strukturen sind im Einklang mit dem westostrichtenden horizontalen Druckspannungsfeld, das im nordostjapanischen Inselbogen vorherrscht, aber enter dem gleichen Spannungsfeld die west-ostrichtende Krustbewegung zu erklaren ist nicht leicht. Die Ebene als Ganzes hebt wenigstens wahrend des Spätquartärs. Wenn die Entstellung der Terrasen verbunden mit der Faltung und der Schragstellung wäre, die östriche Hebung ensteht im Kamikita Block, mit der Rate 0, 1-0, 2mm pro Jahr in den letzten 120.000 Jahren. Die örtliche Hebungsrate im Ou-Sannohe Block wird auf 0, 3-0, 4mm pro Jahr aus der Aktivität der Tatunokuchi Flexur verangeschlagen. Solche örtliche Hebung der Ebene ergibt aus der krustige Entstellung im Zussamenhang mit die groβen Erdbeben, die in der Zone zwischen dem Japan Graben und der Ebene entstand, order aus die krustige Bewegung mit der lange Welle, die dem nordostlichen Inselbogen aufwölbt.
Rice farming in the Philippines underwent an unprecedented change in the 1970s-a result of technological innovations combined with a new high-yielding variety of rice. This paper attempts to shed light on the basic nature and pattern of this agrarian change as well as to discuss its implications. Accordingly, attention is given to the basic components of current technological innovation, namely, seeds, inputs, credit. The patterns of agrarian change identified in this study are: firstly, the specialization of seed production, in other words, the alienation of farmers from seed production; secondly, the growing dependence of farmers on modern inputs; and, thirdly, the great expansion of the farm credit system in the rural community. It should be emphasized that, contrary to the frequent claims of the development economists, the tremendous expansion of the domestic market for farm inputs failed to encourage the growth of domestic agro-industries. Instead, au enormous impact was observed only in the marketing and financing sectors. This brought about the emergence of a commercial elite class in the rural community. Another point is that the massive diffusion of “green revolution” technology in the 1970s brought the country to self-sufficiency in rice. This resulted, on the one hand, in termination of rice imports from neighboring countries, but, on the other, it created a new dependence on the foreign capital necessary to acquire modern inputs.
This paper portrays the distribution pattern of irrigation systems in Japan and then analyzes the pattern with respect to elements of the natural environment and of the irrigation development process. Irrigation systems in Japan are classified into (1) river, (2) pond, (3) lake, (4) groundwater, (5) torrent, and (6) other systems. River irrigation systems dominate overwhelmingly and occur widely, but especially in eastern Japan. Pond irrigation systems are important in western Japan, centered on the Inland Sea. Various types of irrigation systems exist together in the Kanto district, and torrent systems are common in mountainous areas. The basic features of irrigation systems in western Japan were formed during the Kofun and Nara periods (300 to 800 A.D.). On the other hand, the main systems in the east were built largely in the Sengoku and Edo periods (1450 to 1867 A. D.). In the large systems, a hierarchical structure of water management cooperatives and water delivery methods that accords with the branchlike network of canals was established in the Edo period (1600 to 1867 AD.).
Although Northeast Brazil has been recognized as being constituted by three distinct zones, the coastal sugar cane zone (zona da mata), the semiarid inland cattle country (sertão), and the transitional zone between them (agreste), their demarcation and the criteria for classification have not always been clear. The present study attempts to visualize the zonal pattern of land use and to propose a quantitative regionalization of the cultural landscape in the state of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil. Along a 270 kilometer belt from the Atlantic coast to Patos, the land use of one square kilometer plots was intensively surveyed at five-kilometer intervals near the coast and ten-kilometer intervals inland. Our analyses suggest that the agricultural land use pattern in the state of Paraíba is composed of eight distinct regions. Three regions are identified near the coast, the urbanized region, the sugar cane cultivation region, and the root crop producing region. The agreste, characterized by cattle raising and maize cultivation, is made up of the depression zone-parkland pasture region, the orographic rain-savanna pasture region, and the dense caatinga region. The sertão, where extensive grazing in sparse caatinga is the dominant form of livelihood, consists of the Borborema Plateau and the Patos Basin. These regional divisions, identified by our field survey, were verified by analyses of statistical data on livestock and cultivated crops by município as well as by observations of roadside sales of agricultural commodities by peasants.
In present Bangladesh peddling is one of major marketing channels. An investigation of peddling affords us valuable new insights into the Bangladesh society. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the peddling activities of aluminumware sellers, from both spatial and temporal points of view. First, the author studied the marketing channel of aluminumware. Then he examined the sales areas of the peddlers, and investigated the daily, weekly and seasonal changes in their life. As for the marketing channels of aluminumware, after importing aluminum ingot from foreign countries to Chittagong, it is transported to the factories in Dhaka and processed into final products there. These products are distributed to the customers throughout the country through wholesalers first, and then retailers or peddlers based in local centers. Their life style changes radically from the dry season to the rainy season. While they peddle aluminumware in the dry season, they fish in the rainy season. During the peddling season, they rent a lodge in the local center and live in a group. One of them visits a wholesaler once or twice a month to restock their supply. They peddle in villages within about 6 km of their base, carrying the merchandise on a pole with nets on both ends. They visit about 10 to 20 basis (homesteads) in 1 to 3 grams (villages) a day. In their weekly schedule they visit villages of established patronage on a fixed day of the week and usually take a day off on Friday, which is a Muslim holiday. Each peddler usually does business with about 200 customers and it promotes his business to sell on credit and trade in used aluminumware. Such business strategies are convenient for customers and also bring more profit to the peddlers. Their net profit is rather high compared with that of other traders in periodic markets. Many women are among their customers. Transactions with peddlers are the only shopping opportunity for the women in Bangladesh, who rarely go out of their house because of the purdah dominated society of Muslims. Only men do shopping at market places located everywhere in Bangladesh. This seems to be one of the important reasons why peddling still thrives in Bangladesh.
This study attempts to explain the inpatient travel pattern of hospital utilization on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, by employing combined information on patients and their attending physicians. Such a study is generally difficult to carry out as appropriate data are not usually available. The effect of selected variables is examined with the use of the Multidimensional Method (Quantification Theory II). It is found that diagnosis and physician ethnicity are important factors for the Hawaii Medical Service Association (HMSA) and Medicaid patients. It is physicians, rather than patients, who tend to choose hospitals for inpatient care. Further research is necessary to examine the importance of the physician's role as a decision-maker.