Geographical review of Japan, Series B.
Online ISSN : 2185-1700
Print ISSN : 0289-6001
Volume 61 , Issue 1
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 1-13
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    The purpose of this report is to make a general view on the recent studies of heat island phenomena, specifically focussed on its climatological aspects, in Japan, and to make a perspective of urban climatology in future. At first, the causative processes of urban climates were shown conceptionally from the viewpoint of urbanizations and this made possible to grasp its significance. Namely, urbanization is expressed to concentration of population, modification of earth's surface constituent materials and expansion of living space onto and into the ground. Also these bring about changes in morphological and physical features, and energetic conditions, which consequently modify radiation, heat and water balance to come out heat island.
    Among the processes mentioned above, it is noted on the ones which is being studied or interested in now in Japan. One of climatological interests is to grasp heat island phenomenally. At first distributional character of isolines in heat island and occurrence time of maximum heat island intensity were made clear, and its relation to population was compared with the cases in North America and Europe. Next, the formative factors of heat island were considered from the viewpoints of morphologiral roughness of a city (roughness parameter, Ohgaki city), sky view ratio (cities along the Tama river) and soil moisture (Kawagoe city), separately. As well as the case of population, these are superficially correlated with heat island and very interested geographically, on the other hand it is also necessary to make connections with its physical structure. Futhermore, it was considered on radiation and heat balance in an urban area. The studies of radiation balance were mainly introduced here on the relationships between nocturnal urban heat island and longwave radiation field. In Japan there are few comprehensive studies on urban heat balance, and its components such as latent and heat flux are taken into considerations separately. A systematic study in an urban canyon must be also waited in future. Finally it is stated about subjects or ways of the study to be expected.
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  • Takehiko MIKAMI
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 14-22
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    Recent studies on the climatic reconstruction of Japan based on historical weather records are reviewed. On the whole, they may be classified into two categories according to their approaches. One approach is to examine long-term climatic fluctuations at a particular place on the basis of continual weather records. Another approach is to construct spatial weather features for a particular period (e. g., famine years) by using as many weather records as possible. In any case, a problem is that how we can transform such qualitative data as historical weather records into the quantitative climatic data which are comparable with instrumental data.
    An attempt is also made to derive the characteristics of weather situations in historical times of Japan, especially in the Little Ice Age, from various studies in the field of historical climatology.
    Finally, future prospects for the climatic reconstruction in historical times are summarized by making reference to the recent studies in other countries
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  • Osamu SHIMMI, Yuichi SUZUKI, Noboru HIDA
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 23-34
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    The purpose of this paper are to show the recent trend of hydro-geographical studies in Japan dealing with the hydrological environment and the relationship between water and man, and to discuss problems for future study. At the regional level, the subjects studied are the water balance and the hydrological environment in Japan. Concerning water utilization, the following themes were discussed: water resources development and water problems during the period of rapid economic growth, establishment and development of a public supply system for industrial water, and changes in irrigation water use due to rapid urbanization. In the case of the basin scale, a number of studies on groundwater were conducted. The subjects studied are the unique systems of water use such as manbo, snow meltig system using groundwater, environmental problems due to water use, and groundwater management. Concerning the relationship between water and urbanization, many case studies were made on the following subjects: changes in water use, historical develpoment of water transfer, abandonment of irrigation ponds, as well as the hydrological environment and water use in urbanized areas. Other interests are focused on such themes as floods and flood hazard, social problems related to dam construction, and problems specific to water on islands. There are many investigations relating to water and man in the different fields of geography. The geographical information available through this basic research, however, is not summarized comprehensively from the hydro-geographical viewpoint. For future study, it is very important to develop methods of expression for the hydrological environment and water use, to attempt to describe hydro-geography based on the concepts of the hydrologic cycle and water balance, and to publish a reliable manual on hydro-geography.
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  • Masahiko OYA, Masatami NAKAYAMA, Isao TAKAGI
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 35-49
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    (1) The geomorphological features of the fluvial plain are strongly influenced by the volume and quality of sediments transported from the upper reaches of the river. There are close relationships between the sand and gravels on one hand, and the landform of the upper basin on the other.
    Generally speaking, the mountain region is characterized by its upheaval and the plains are depressed. The plains were formed by the deposition of sand and gravels which were transported by rivers from the mountains.
    (2) Basically, the combination of the geomorphological elements of fluvial plain is:
    Fan+Natural levee (back-marsh)+Delta.
    The geomorphological elements were formed by the repetition of flooding.
    One of the typical types of the plains is the Nobi Plain in the Central part of Japan.
    (3) Distinct regional differences can be identified in forms of the combination of the geomorphological elements.
    The river which has intermontane depressions and gorges with knick point in the upper reaches significantly contributes to the regional differences. A considerable part of the large size gravels transported from the upper reaches is deposited in the intermontane depressions, while only sand and small-sized gravels are allowed flow downward to the plain. Therefore, when the absolute volume of gravels was small, a small fan was constructed. This phenomenon has been clarified by several studies of river bed sediments in the Mogami River and other rivers. Whether or not the river flows in parallel with the island arc has a decided influence on these features.
    The plains along the sea coast was influenced by the fluctuation of sea water level.
    (4) The geomorphological elements such as fan, natural levee, back-marsh and delta, and their combinations show the history of flooding of the plain. Therefore, by making a geomorphological land classification map of the plain, one can predict the feature of flooding in the future. The accuracy of the geomorphological land classification map was proved by the Typhoon of Vera (so-called Ise Bay Typhoon) of 1959 at the Nobi Plain.
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  • Masako MOMIYAMA, Masahiro KAGAMI, Tokiko SATO
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 50-58
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    This paper aims to introduce some of the medico-geographical works in Japan. Especially, the studies on the geographical distribution of stroke mortality have been developed systematically, whereas the very various aspects of the medical phenomena have been recently analysed.
    The publication of the National Disease Atlas stimulated the analysis of the geographical variance of disease mortality. Here we had some stages of the analysis of stroke mortality as follows: statistical tools used for demonstrating the geographical distribution of mortality from stroke, statistical analysis of ecological/epidemiological association of stroke mortality, and studies on temperature and climate possibly related to stroke. Last, it was pointed that the appropriate methods according to the geographical scale must be used for the geographical analysis of disease mortality.
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  • Keiichi TAKEUCHI, Hideki NOZAWA
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 59-73
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    In this paper, the authors examine the recent state of the studies in the history of Japanese geographical thought, both traditional and modern. They remark that the increased interest in the history of geographical thought in recent decades in Japan is the reflection of the increasing concern over the epistemological and methodological interest in Japanese geography. The examinations conducted in this paper are also made in the context of methodological and epistemological reflections with regard to the intellectual activities of Japanese geographers. The main emphases are put on problems of the articulation of traditional or indigenous Japanese geographical thought with modern academic geography, the roles played by the authors of geographical writings in the early Meiji period, the significance of the pioneers and outsiders of modern geography and characteristics of various schools of academic geography in Japan.
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  • Takeshi SAITO
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 74-77
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    The purpose of this paper is to make a prospect on development of genetic viewpoint in methodological discussion on geographic education in recent decades, and to point out some problems.
    The author underlines that geographic educatin is not always a sub-field of applied geography, but a system of recognition to be established on the interdisciprinary field of geography, pedagogy, phenomenological philsophy, child psychology, cultural antholopology, educatin theory of natural science and so like.
    Since early 1970s' with the emergence of cultural geography and humanistic geography as a turning point, theory of geographic education have had developed along this idea.
    The concept of Weltbild has been introduced into methodological study of geographic education. Weltbild is a visual representation of one's Weltanschauung. Weltbild is developed from the concept of PIAGET's la representation du monde chez 1 'enfant with a viewpoint in study of geography, and it could be constructed by one's own experiences on various places, with the development of memories. Weltbild plays an important and significant role in geographic education, because it is a base of one's spatial behaviour, and it will metamorphose with his development, gradually.
    Concerning the structure of the la representation du monde chez 1'enfant and its process of metamorphose to wissenschaftliche Weltanschauung, remains hypothetical parts even now. So empirical researches are necessary, and some of them are accmplished in many parts, with the methodology developed by R. HART. From such methodolgy, we developed “genetic geographic education theory”, and now, the empirical research to systematize it is much more promoted.
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  • Kentaro KOBAYASHI, Akihiro KINDA
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 78-98
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    Japanese historical-geographical research has had a rather fruitful period in the recent decade. The trends of the six major themes are reviewed in this paper.
    Crop cultivation seems to have commenced during the earliest Jomon period (12, 000-6, 000 BP) and paddy rice cultivation began during the latest Jomon period (3, 000-2, 300 BP). The latter reached to the most northern part of Honshu in the middle Yayoi Period, and most of the paddy field remains of the Yayoi (2, 300-1, 750 BP) and Kofun Periods (1, 750-1, 400 BP) are very small sectioned. These findings mainly from the archaeological excavation differ significantly from previous research conclusions.
    2) The restoration of ancient cities has progressed and new knowledge of the similarity and differences between Japanese and Chinese capital cities based on detailed comparative studies is being undertaken. Arguments concerning the origins of city planning have also begun. Research on road networks is very active and it is now indisputable that there was a systematic road network which connected major target points by straight lines throughout ancient Japan. Perceptive new research approaches to ascertain the location and arrangement of ancient cities and major facilities are now being conducted.
    3) The Joni plan consisting of the Joni grid pattern and the Joni indication system appears to have been completed in the middle of the 8 th century. This is quite different from previously held opinion. Discussions on the activities of the Joni plan in ancient and medieval times have begun, and research and analysis on its wide diffusion as an important element of the traditional rural landscape have also been compiled. The condition and change of land use in and out of the Joni grid pattern has become one of the principal topics of discussion. Territory and form of settlement in ancient and medieval times have become clearer. For example, there was a prominent trend of making nucleated settlements, called Ballung and making dispersed settlement.
    4) Research on the distribution and the landscape of the medieval markets has continued. One writer pointed out that medieval markets did not yet form an organic hierarchical structure from the point of commodity flows. The arguments on castle towns, which are one of the principal themes of Japanese historical geography, progressed especially in terms of changes from preceding types and structure.
    5) Studies of spatial relation between the hanseison and the muya, and the spatial structure of rural society in modern times have been compiled. Case studies on labor and marriage migrations also appeared. Analysis of the farming books of the Edo era were added to traditional research on newly reclaimed land in the same era.
    6) Many maps were drawn in the medieval times and the Edo era in Japan. The behavioral approach to historical regional structure using these maps has begun in the last decade, in addition to traditional research on those maps. Analysis of medieval legends has been undertaken to understand the structure of medieval living space.
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  • Yukio HIMIYAMA, Kiyotaka JITSU
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 99-110
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    Land use studies in Japan in the 1980s have been reviewed and evaluated, their outcomes and related problems discussed, and a new direction for the discipline proposed, based on the achievements of the International Symposium on Land Use Change and Its Processes held at Asahikawa and Sapporo in August 1987 under the auspices of the IGU. The reference articles have been drawn not only from geography, but from several other disciplines, partly because of the interdisciplinary nature of land use studies, and partly because of the lack of coordination of the related disciplines. It has been argued that serious problems exist with regard to the provision and use of national land use data, as well as the excessive regionalism that leads to an ignorance of the national context. It has been proposed to establish an independent and interdisciplinary approach capable of both enhancing the people's understanding of national land use and making sound, fact-based proposals for present and future land use.
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  • Nobuo TAKAHASHI, Mineaki KANNO
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 111-119
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    Japanese metropolises have undergone drastic changes over the past 30 years. The concentration of population in large cities and subsequent suburbanization, extension of commuter zones and metropolitan areas, and suburbanization of retail and industrial activities have reorganized the metropolitan areas.
    This paper attempts to review the geographical studies on metropolitan areas in recent decades, paying special attention to the dominant phenomena occurring in metropolitan areas and research trends among them.
    Studies on metropolitan areas began with the expansion of large cities and urbanization in outlying areas. Later, the processes of metropolitan growth and the structure of metropolitan areas became the main themes of metropolitan studies.
    As in developed nations in Western Europe and North America, deconcentration of the population and economic activities are common in Japanese metropolitan areas. Hence, geographical studies on metropolitan areas are reviewed under the following headings: suburbanization of population, outmovement of industry, suburbanization of retailing, deconcentration of employment, flows of people and commodities, office activities, increase in high buildings and underground establishments, and suburbanization of housing.
    Despite the relative decline of the central city in the metropolitan area, tertiary activities as well as office activities still exist in the central part of the city, and the Japanese suburbanization areas do not have serious inner city problems.
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  • Noboru HAYASHI, Masateru HINO
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 120-140
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    The spatial pattern of the Japanese wholesale system had for a long time been characterized by a bipolar structure with Tokyo and Osaka as major wholesale centers. Since the 1960s, however, with the changes in industrial structure and the agglomeration of head offices of large enterprises, wholesale traders have become concentrated in Tokyo. As a result, the spatial pattern of wholesaling has been transformed into a single polar system. At the same time, regional centers such as Sapporo, Sendai, Hiroshima, and Fukuoka have become important wholesale centers in the regions to which they belong.
    Generally, there has been a remarkable increase in freight volume and transportation systems have undergone considerable development in the course of post-World War II economic growth. Distribution facilities such as warehouses and wholesale fresh food markets have moved from inner cities to metropolitan suburbs in parallel with the development of truck transportation. The location of truck terminals and wholesale estates in the suburbs of main cities promoted the relocation of wholesale establishments from CBDs to surrounding areas.
    The most striking change in Japan's retail system has been brought about by the rapid development of supermarket chains on national and regional scales since the early 1960 s. These stores are characterized by self-service and chain store systems which are diffused throughout the urban hierarchical system. With the development of retail activities in suburban areas, patterns of competition such as suburb vs. downtown area emerged within metropolises.
    Motorization is another element which has brought about a restructuring of shopping areas at every level of the urban hierarchy. While newly developed commercial areas attract consumers arriving by car, existing and small-sized shopping areas are declining in the face of severe competition from the former. Spatial patterns of shopping centers which once corresponded to the hierarchical central place system have gradually lost their hierarchical features.
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  • Hideya ISHII, Shigeru SHIRASAKA
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 141-149
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    The study examines recent geographical studies on recreation and tourism to identify future task. After reviewing the history and characteristics of Japanese recreation and tourism, geographical works can be categorized into studies of spatial organization, studies of landscape formation, and other studies (landscape evaluation and the perception of recreational resources).
    In the field of spatial organization, geographers have identified recreational spaces centered on a city and complex recreational regions composed of different types of resorts. It is important in Japan, however, to develop further the study of urban recreation to examine recreational space. The field of landscape formation has accumulated more studies than that of spatial organization. The majority of previous studies, however, are preoccupied with hot spring and minshuku settlements and their perspective is economically oriented. Geographers can expand their scope into social or cultural geography and into environmental problems. Studies of environmental evaluation and recreational resources perception are in their early stages. On the whole, recreational geography in Japan is behind that of other developed countries in accepting such contemporary techniques as quantitative methods and environmental perception. The development of recreation and tourism in Japan, however, will increase the demand of geographical researches.
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  • Eiichi AOKI
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 150-158
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    With the rapid development of the Japanese economy and the increase in the importance of transport, the study of transport has increased. In spite of wide split in methodology and objectives between the geographies in quantitative and sicio-economic frameworks, Japanese transport geographers have contributed many fundamental and practical analysis of transport. In this paper, the author comments on the outline of development in the study of socio-economic transport geography, or transport geography in a socio-economic framework, especially since the latter half of the 1960's. Socio-economic transport geography means the analysis of transport modes and facilities or transport enterprises in relation to the regional environment through an integrated system with reference to technology, administeration and policy, economics, and culture, with their historical development.
    In the development of these socio-economic transport geography in Japan, several studies have focused on specific subjects, such as port and shipping activity, rural land transport, and urban transport. The development process and present situation of transport in these field has been analysed in relation to regional development. The emphasis in the studies has gradually moved from morphological to functional approaches, accompanied by a historical approach, looking for the process of decision-making. Some geographers have commented on the importance of studies oriented toward regional planning and policy-making. This will lead the studies to the brightest prospect for transport geography today.
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  • Akinobu TERASAKA, Yoshiki WAKABAYASHI, Itsuki NAKABAYASHI, Kazutoshi A ...
    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 159-173
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    In this paper, the authors consider spatial problems pertaining to the transmission of information in the increasingly information-oriented society of contemporary Japan. The appearance of what is now referred to as the ‘new media’ resulted from the development of computer technology and the digitalization of communications contingent on the second institutional liberalization of telecommunications that took place in 1982. The authors examine a new local system in the share of the experiments involving the INS model carried out by NTT in the Musashino and Mitaka districts.
    The experiments made it clear that numerous problems had yet to be solved before this system could be fully implemented.
    To begin with, CATV in Japan was intended merely as a countermeasure to cope with the difficulties met with in areas where airwave transmission reception, involving television, was poor; but, at present, it is in the process of becoming important in its own right, as one of the new media. With the increasing number of channels available to independent CATV programs, the latter have become an important means of communication between the administrative authorities and the inhabitants of the areas concerned. Moreover, CATV contributes to the formation of community organizations, providing various services for the use of the inhabitants, and thus plays a part in the improvement of living conditions in both rural and urban areas in the provinces, and also in suburban districts.
    At one time, it was thought that the diffusion of the new information transmission media would bring about the decentralization of private enterprises but, in actual fact, the result has been the concentration of managerial functions in the Tokyo district, in particular in the three Inner City wards of Tokyo. This has to be due to the locational behavior of enterprises seeking ever more accessibility to the information necessary to management activities. The growing importance of Tokyo as a financial market on a global scale has also stimulated the location of enterprises backed by foreign capital in central Tokyo. In order to answer the ensuing demand for office space in central Tokyo, the construction of office buildings is very active and the business areas within Inner Tokyo are expanding, but there still exists a shortage of office space, a fact which constitutes one of the main reasons for the land price hike in central Tokyo.
    The authors conclude that the information gap among regions is widening, along with the decrease in the relative importance of local cities, including Osaka and other metropolises due to the concentration of information in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The transformation into an intensely information-oriented society is stimulated not only by private but also by governmental initiative in the development of information-related services and activities, such as the `Teletopia Project' of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications and the ‘New Media Community Project’ of MITI. The realization of these governmental projects will probably bring about considerable changes in the situation of local communities and the lives of the local inhabitants. The authors remark that, in the light of this new perspective, geographical studies in Japan are far behind in comparison with studies in other fields of geography.
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    1988 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 174-189
    Published: May 31, 1988
    Released: December 25, 2008
    An analysis of the nature of industrial change and corporate behavior is essential to an understanding of contemporary locational dynamics and spatial structures. The recent revitalization of industrial geography in Western countries, especially the UK, has produced active methodological discussion, as well as empirical studies on severe stagflation and spatial changes. In Japan, a considerable amount of research has also been conducted in order to analyze recent industrial change and corporate behavior. Various theoretical schemes have been introduced to their works, and their perspectives have often resembled that of European or American scholars. However, most of the research by Japanese scholars has concentrated on individual domestic problems. In order for further advancement, it is necessary to clarify the implications of Western and Japanese contributions and prepare a common ground for interactive discussion.
    This paper compares and contrasts some of the methodological and empirical studies in Western countries and Japan, especially those which examine locational dynamics and spatial structures of the leading industries in the recent “restructuring” process.
    Following the first introductory section, a Japanese methodological contribution is shown in section 2. It is the “spatial structure theory”, a school of Japanese economic geography, which originates partly from Marxian economic theory. A comparison of the framework and viewpoint of theory with the counterparts of so-called “structural approach” in the UK is significant for the development of industrial geography.
    Empirical studies focusing on locational dynamics in the basic material industries and machinery industries are reviewed in the section 3 and 4. Section 3 reviews the locational strategies of large corporations as major factors of locational dynamics, using Japan and the UK as examples. The differences in the economic environments, industrial policies and industrial organization have created differences in locational behavior of corporations. They have also affected their spatial structures.
    Section 4 deals with the machinery industry with mass production and assembly systems. In Japan, there has been a distinct centralization trend associated with the adoption of massproduction systems, while the Western countries have experienced a decentralization trend. Such a clear-cut contrast is largely explained by the Japanese flexible manufacturing system (including the locational adjustment in situ), which is farther supported by a uniquely Japanese manner of labor control.
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