There are many highland settlements known as “hill stations” or “summer resorts” in Southeast Asian countries under the tropical and subtropical climate. The hill station is not a native institution, but one developed during the nineteenth century by the British and Dutch colonial masters in order to make sojourns in a foreign land more comfortable. In southern Japan, the worst period is from June through August, though its intensity does not compare with that farther south. In Malaysia and Indonesia, the period extends throughout the year. The Cameron Highlands is the most famous hill station in Peninsular Malaysia being one of colonial origin. The Cameron Highlands is located between 1, 000 and 1, 500 meters above sea level on the main range of central Malaysia. Today, the Cameron Highlands is mainly a summer resort, but it is also a very important mid-latitude vegetable growing area. The development of the Cameron Highlands began only after 1926, though it was discovered by, and named after, William CAMERON in 1885. Almost simultaneous with the opening of the Cameron Highlands as a hill resort was the growth and development of vegetable farming by farmers of Chinese origin. There are also three new vegetable farming settlements developed after World War II. Some 47 per cent of the inhabitants of the Cameron Highlands are Chinese Malaysian, and they shoulder the vegetable growing business. The temperate vegetables in the Cameron Highlands are mostly to be found above 1, 000 meters above sea level. Some twenty-five types of mid-latitude vegetables are cultivated here, though the main crops are Chinese cabbage, English cabbage and tomatoes, which are popular with most of the people in Malaysia. Almost all the vegetable seeds are imported from Japan. Farm labor on the vegetable farms, which average one to two acres in the Highlands, is normally family labor. Large amounts of chicken dung are used as fertilizer, and farming is very intensive. Crops such as spinach, bell pepper (paprika), and celery are grown under cover to protect them from the rather heavy rains that fall around here. Each farmer follows his own judgement in the choice of crops to grow with a mind to the vegetable price in the markets. Therefore, there is no established cycle of crops. Today, most of the vegetables produced in the Cameron Highlands are transported by large trucks to the main cities in Peninsular Malaysia, and some 25-30% are exported to Singapore.
Consumers do not always visit the nearest store to purchase groceries. In this study, a dichotomous destination choice model was developed to explain the type of consumers and the situation in which they choose the nearest supermarket. The model includes variables to represent the utility of a destination, travel constraints, and the effects of multiple stops. The model was calibrated for three different areas in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada to examine intraurban variations in destination choice. The results indicate that the effect of travel mode on the choice of the nearest store is important for the three areas, but the effects of other variables vary over space. It seems that the differences in store distribution consumers confront relate to the variation in coefficients of the model.
Kandy, the largest inland city in contemporary Sri Lanka, was the capital city of the Kandyan Kingdom for more than 250 years from the end of the 16 th century to the early 19th century. After the British colonized the whole island in 1815 and moved the capital from Kandy to Colombo, Kandy became simply an ancient city preserving the former palace, the Temple of the Tooth Relic, other temples, devalas or shrines, forts, and so forth. Later, it became an important gathering center for plantation products such as tea, vegetables, and spices. After independence in 1948, Kandy regained its functional importance as a national center for religious and cultural affairs, a great regional center for public administration, education, health care, and commerce. The city serves also as a tourist resort of the country. In the process of history, many people of different ethnic origins migrated to the city, transforming Kandy city into a typical multi-ethnic city. In this paper, the author attempts to explore the residential patterns, precisely speaking, spatial perspective of residential patterns among major ethnic groups, namely, Sinhalese, Tamils and Muslims. The methods employed for measuring the residential patterns of ethnic groups are: representation ratio, index of dissimilarity, index of segregation and index of centralization. Data on ethnic categories were gathered in the field in 1985. Some of the points drawn from the analysis are: (1) that the Sinhalese, the most dominant group, do not show any concentration in residential areas but rather an even distribution in all 23 wards of the city, while the minority groups like the Tamils and Muslims have greater concentration closer to the built-up area and in areas of proximity to the center of Kandy city; (2) that the residential pattern varies according to the socio-economic status levels of the residents; in other words, the dissimilarity is lower in the lower and high class residential areas; (3) that the dissimilarity can be clearly observed between Sinhalese and Tamils, then between Sinhalese and Muslims, and the least between Tamils and Muslims; (4) Tamils and Muslims live closer to the city center proving that minority groups tend to concentrate closer to the city center although Kandy city is not an industrial center.