This paper characterizes the departure and destination choice processes of the 1979-80 overall and age-specific interprefectural migration patterns in Japan, based on the data from the 1980 census. The major findings about the departure processes are (1) that the spatial pattern of overall departure rates is complex but systematic, suggesting that these rates depend not only on the economic and housing opportunities of the prefectures but also on the compositions of the prefectural populations with respect to such attributes as nativity and home ownership; (2) that the spatial patterns of departure rates vary systematically with age, with the 15-19 age group having the simplest pattern (low in metropolitan areas and high in rural areas); and (3) that the age-patterns of departure rates differ markedly between metropolitan core and peripheral rural prefectures. Our main findings about the destination choice processes are (1) that despite having negative net migrations, Tokyo and Osaka prefectures are the most preferred destination for the outmigrants from many prefectures; (2) that the destination choice patterns also vary systematically with age, with the 15-19 age group having the most concentrated pattern; (3) that the 35-39 age group has a highly dispersed destination choice pattern, with the spheres of dominance of Tokyo and Osaka for this age group being quite broken up by regional growth poles and the destinations near the origins; and (4) that the age selectivity in destination choice pattern displays a very clear metropolitan/non-metropolitan contrast: rather weak for outmigrants from metropolitan prefectures, but quite strong for outmigrants from non-metropolitan prefectures.
The provision of public services by local government involves many aspects of society, politics, and economy. Recently, human geographers have come to focus on the concept of state intervention, especially on the political and economic role of central and local government, which has been stimulated by a growing concern for the debate of social theory. Making use of this intellectual stimulus, this analysis aims to develop a macro-theoretical, historical, and concrete approach in order to clarify the structure and pattern of municipal expenditure during prewar Japan before 1945. Taking into consideration the theoretical pluralism which realism implies, this analysis attempts to encompass several bodies of theories such as a materialist conception of the role of state and the outcome of the studies of public service. Within the structure and the process of municipal government intervention in urban development under Japanese capitalism, this study demonstrates the overwhelmingly energetic intervention into the construction of an urban built environment by the initiative of the six major metropolitan municipal governments. It also demonstrates both general and local specific features of the municipal government intervention of the other cities.
In this study, the regional conditions for the formation of areas in the broiler chicken industry have been elucidated through an examination of the area formation processes. Furthermore, the general conditions in production area formation have been investigated. As for study areas, four areas were selected: the Tajima area in Hyogo and Fuji area in Shizuoka were chosen as the production areas located in the environs of metropolitan regions. While the Koyu area in Miyazaki and the northern area of Iwate were selected as case studies in the periphery. General conditions found in the study for the formation of production area in the broiler chicken industry are as follows. The first is the participation of business firms and agricultural cooperatives' groups as an integrator in the industry, setting up processing factories through which they developed competition to secure broiler chicken raising farms. Consequently, expanding the production area spatially, the farms gradually enlarged their sizes to carry out specialized management. The second is the predominance of marginal farms on the less favored areas where the integrators moved. These marginal farms which did not have much alternative were willing to raise broiler chickens, expecting larger incomes and stable farm management. The third is the special attributes of the broiler chicken industry such as a relatively small initial investment, and the simplicity of chicken raising which enables easy participation for even an unexperienced farm household, and an assurance of relatively high income.
We noticed an early leafing of Tilia japonica (MIQ.) SIMONKAI growing along a street in the urban center of Sendai, in the northeast of Japan. The early leafing was assumed to be caused by an urban heat island. We attempted to elucidate how many days the leafing was in advance of usual leafing and to estimate the thermal difference between urban and suburban areas as shown by such responses in plants. The street where the trees in question are located is a 10-meter wide pedestrian mall lined with numerous buildings which extend north and south. A pair of terminal and lateral leaf buds was marked for investigation on each branch of three trees. The trees were about 5m in height. One of them was on the western side of the street and the other two were on the eastern side. Lengths of these six buds, and subsequently, lengths of new shoots after the buds had leafed were measured in the spring of 1988 by a caliper gauge. The measurements were conducted at intervals of approximately one week and continued until the shoots had finished elongating. Similar measurements were carried out for six other buds on a control tree in a private garden surrounded by open cultivated fields in a suburban area of Sendai. It was about 8m tall. The trees examined and the control one are at about 40 and 20m above sea level, respectively. After a period of slow swelling of the buds, rapid shoot elongation began on about April 10 and ended on about May 1 in the urban area. On the other hand, shoot elongation began on about April 20 and ended on about May 10 in the suburban area. Accordingly, leafing of T. japonica was approximately 10 days earlier in the urban area of Sendai than in the suburban area (Fig. 1). Unfortunately we could find no other specimens of T. japonica for comparison than the one investigated in the present study. However, we carried out other phenological investigations in the same year at a natural forest in Sendai (KIKUCHI and KIKUCHI, unpub-lished). According to our results, most deciduous trees had not leafed as yet on April 14, and had only partially leafed by April 30. This progress in leafing under natural conditions was very similar to that of the control tree in the present study. Thus, our finding that the three trees in the urban area of Sendai leafed 10 days earlier than normal should be judged as reasonable. One of the present authors has reported that the leafing of several species of deciduous trees is delayed with an increase in altitude at a rate of three to five days per 100m (KANEKO (for-merly T. KIKUCHI), 1965). WATANABE (1988) also reported a three-day delay per 100m of altitude. Consequently, the ten-day difference in leafing between the urban and suburban areas of Sendai investigated in this study is equivalent to an altitudinal difference of 200 to 300m. A thermal difference of 1 to 1.5°C can be calculated between such points based on the altitudinal regression rate of temperature. Thus, we can conclusively say that trees growing in the urban area of Sendai are under thermal conditions 1 to 1.5°C warmer than those in suburban or natural areas. Maximum heat island intensity increases with an increase of urban population (OKE, 1973). Such intensity is about 4°C for a city such as Sendai with 600, 000 inhabitants (Fuxu-OKA, 1983; PARK, 1987; YAMASHITA, 1988). KAWAMURA (1985) summarized urban climatic conditions and mentions urban-rural differences in temperature in Tokyo and in other medium-sized cities: maximums of 8°C and 4-5°C, winter means of 3.5°C and 2°C, and annual means of 2.5°C and 1°C, respectively. In fact, heat islands 1.5 to 2°C warmer than suburban temperatures have been measured in Sendai (SITARA and HOSOKAWA, 1977; HosoKAWA and SITARA, 1977). The urban-suburban difference of 1 to 1.5°C on tree leafing in the present study seems to appropriately represent mean urban climate intensity of temperature.