The present study reveals the relationship between public facility utilization by elderly persons and their personal characteristics. Although homogeneity in socio-economic and demographic attributes of the elderly population has been assumed in previous studies, this paper attempts to identify the personal attributes and facility characteristics which are determinants of the public facility utilization among subgroups of the elderly population. In order to accomplish this purpose, one type of public elderly care facility, the elderly welfare center, was selected for this study. A mail questionnaire survey was conducted in Matsumoto, Japan, to investigate the utilization of elderly welfare centers, as well as the personal characteristics of older persons aged 60 and above. The respondents to the questionnaire are divided into eight subgroups on the basis of personal characteristics, and data on the subgroups are subsequentely applied to the binary logit model. Results show that the distance traveled to the two elderly welfare centers and the age of the respondents determine center utilization throughout the subgroups. Conversely, no economic characteristics of the elderly people surveyed were found to influence the center utilization.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the locational dynamics of the Japanese plastic-mold manufacturing industry during the microelectronics innovation, as a typical example of the small- and medium-sized machinery industries. The plastic-mold manufacturing industry started around 1930 and a complex developed in Southern Tokyo. The development of mold technology formed the basis of the mass production of durable customer goods with dependence on skilled labor. When the Japanese industry as a whole experienced drastic decentralization in the 1960s and early 1970s, the mold industry maintained centralization in existing industrial regions. However, the recent technological innovation caused rapid locational dispersal into peripheral areas of the industry and the regional differentiation of production. The above facts do not conform to the hypothesis in the neo-Marshallian flexible specialization approach, which proposes that the diffusion of ME devices and flexible production methods resulted in “re-regionalization”. The innovation had the effect of producing spatially wider networks of small- and medium-sized manufacturers around the existing agglomeration structure.
As cities grow and urbanites invade adjacent rural settlements, community values and attitudes become much more heterogeneous. As this invasion takes place, the landscape is also transformed and agricultural activities are threatened. In Japan, these rural-urban communities are known as konjuka settlements. Previous research has examined the friction between newcomers and farmers (old-timers) over agricultural activities; however, there has been almost no examination of how attitudes vary toward urban development in these konjuka settlements. The objective of this study therefore is to examine conflicting attitudes toward. both agricultural activities and urban development. A questionnaire returned by 211 households was distributed within the boundaries of Ushiku City-a satellite city of Tokyo. There were conflicting attitudes toward both agricultural activities and urban development. Specifically, there were major attitude differences toward burning garbage and toward new single detached housing. Responses differed according to the newcomer and old-timer dichotomy. However, responses also varied according to whether one was a farmer, was raised locally and whether one was from the more urbanized or less urbanized hamlet. This study re-affirms that conflicts occur between newcomers and old-timers over agriculture. But the results also indicate that conflicts can occur over urban development. Moreover, the findings confirm the results of other community studies which demonstrate that newcomer values conflict with those of rural old-timers. What is more important, however, is to point out that these conflicts occur between groups other than newcomers and old-timers.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the retail locational changes in Kushiro during the 1980s and to represent a model for the short-term changes in the urban retailing system. In the CBD and the old built-up areas, retail shops have decreased in number, while they have increased in the new built-up areas. In the new built-up areas as well as the CBD, the number of chain stores has increased but the small independents have decreased. In the old built-up areas, the small independents have not decreased. In addition, the new built-up areas are characterized by rapidly increasing motor vehicle stores and speciality stores, being chain stores with free parking.