In this paper, I have tried to clarify the regional differences in the mode of people's belief in the Kanamura Shrine between the outer and inner areas of its religious sphere. In the Toyosato district, a typical district of the inner area, Kanamura religious associations (ko) do not function as autonomous religious groups and are dependent upon other religious or administrative organizations, while the majority of the individual believers used to pray for the safety of soldiers before the war, and now pray for the safety of their own families. People in this area worshipped the Kanamura shrine not only as an efficacious deity but the tutelary status of the shrine. One of the factors causing people to regard the Kanamura Shrine as their tutelary deity is the close connection between the local communities and the shrine through the distribution of amulets and ceremonies in addition to people's visits to the shrine. In the Yoshikawa district, a typical district of the outer area, there are few individual believers but the Kanamura associations in this district have their own managers and members, and function independently of the ujiko, or other religious organizations. It is cleared that people in this area worshipped the Kanamura Shrine not as the tutelary deity but as a removed efficacious deity.
This study provides a micro-level analysis of the relationship between land-use change and land-use decisions of agents in an urban land market. In this paper the land conversion process in Maebashi City, a medium-sized city with one core built-up area was investigated according to the stages of development in terms of land-use change, the number and kind of decision agents, and the mode of their own behavior. The Land Assessment Rolls housed in Maebashi City Hall were used to obtain land-ownership data. In accordance with urban growth, the number of agents and the types of their behavior generally increased. Moreover, the most important feature was that when development progressed to the next stage, the particular agents who only chose limited behavior during the earlier stages took a combination of several kinds of behavior in the same area. The reason for the change of their behavior can be considered as follows: The causes and conditions for their land-use decisions diversified due to the increase of the number of agents: 2) As a result of this diversification of decision-making, the choices for their behavior also diversified. In consequence, the behavior pattern itself became more complicated. Multiple kinds of behavior taken by one agent was a phenomenon only observed in the city center with high urban land demand. However, when urban structure changed due to urban growth, characteristic behavior of the later stages of development was also seen in the suburbs which were previously at an earlier stage of development.
The Tachiki (living trees) Trust movement against golf course development was begun by an association of urban consumers and farmers in Miyoshi Village. The consumers had a fear of chemical harm, a traditional viewpoint of the Japanese environmental movement. The farmers had the opinion that development was the wrong way to vitalize their village, which is a current viewpoint of regional planning. This study aimed to examine how those viewpoints were possessed by the nationwide contributors to the Tachiki Trust. A questionnaire survey revealed that the main force of the contributors were females born during the wartime and the postwar baby-boom, who became aware of chemical harm by having children and by doing domestic duties during the decade from 1975. The contributors had both strong affection for the wilderness and new values as to the true vitalization together with conservation. They regarded the Tachiki Trust as an urgent and transitional method to conserve nature.
Previous research indicated that the average slope angle in Japanese mountains tends to increase with increasing altitude. This paper examines the details of the change for the three ranges of the Japan Alps using 2.25''×1.5'' (ca. 50×50m) DEMs provided by the Geographical Survey Institute of Japan. Altitudinal changes in profile curvature were also analyzed. The results indicate that the ranges can be divided into three altitude zones. Zone 1 (< ca. 1, 000m) is characterized by an increase in mean and modal slope angle with altitude as well as concave slope profiles. Zone 2 (ca. 1, 000 to 2, 800m), which occupies the broadest area of the ranges, is characterized by increases in the mean slope angle with increasing altitude, but the modal slope angle is around 35 degrees regardless of altitude. The modal profile curvature is also stable around null throughout the zone, reflecting straight slope profiles. The ratio of hillslopes with an angle of ca. 35 degrees to all hillslopes increases with increasing altitude, suggesting that hillslopes converge into a characteristic form after long-term erosion. Zone 3 occurs in narrow zones near mountain summits (> ca. 2, 800m) where hillslopes are subjected to periglacial actions, wind erosion and Pleistocene glacial erosion. This zone is characterized by the decreasing slope inclination with altitude and convex slope profiles.