In this paper we discuss the relations between cognitive maps, spatial abilities and human wayfinding, particularly in the context of traveling without the use of sight. Initially we discuss the nature of cognitive maps and the process of cognitive mapping as mechanisms for developing person to object (egocentric) and object to object (allocentric) internal representations. Imperfections in encoding either relations can introduce imperfections in representations of environments in memory. This, together with individual differences in human spatial abilities, can result in data manipulations that produce error. When information stored in long term memory is brought into working memory for purposes of decision making and choice behavior (as in route selection), the result may be the selection of an inefficient or incorrect path. We explore the connection between environmental learning and cognitive maps in the context of learning a route in two different cultural environments-Belfast (Northern Ireland) and Santa Barbara (California). Blind, vision impaired, and sighted volunteers traveled and learned routes of approximately the same length (1.2miles) in their respective urban environments. An initial trial was experimenter guided; three following trials were regarded as “test” trials where the participants learned the route and performed route fixing tasks including pointing between designated places, verbally describing the route after each completion, and building a model of the route using metallic strips on a magnetic board. Results indicated that by the end of the third test trial, and using the reinforcing strategies, the results of the blind or vision impaired participants could not be statistically differentiated from those of the sighted participants. This indicated that the wayfinding abilities of the three groups were equivalent in this experiment and suggested that spatial abilities were potentially the same in each group but that lack of sight interfered with putting knowledge into action.
Geomorphological equilibrium line altitude (ELAg), as defined by steady-state equilibrium line altitude estimated based on geomorphological method, has been used to reconstruct Last Glacial palaeoclimate. However, the ELAg is influenced not only by temperature, but also by other factors. This paper discusses factors affecting Last Glacial ELAg in the Kiso mountain range, central Japan. The weathering-rind thickness of gravel was used for dating moraines. The dating results have shown that glaciers advanced at the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas stages. The ELAg for each stage was reconstructed based on the Accumulation-Area-Ratio method (AAR=0.6). The results indicate that the ELAg of each reconstructed glacier was affected not only by temperature but also by the altitude of mountain ridges. Although some previous studies have reconstructed palaeoclimate based on the ELAg, the results of the present study cast doubt on such reconstruction. For better reconstruction, the effects of temperature on the ELAg should be separated from those of topographic factors.
A migration career, that is, a trajectory of personal migrations in space and time, is an important element in the understanding of urban residential areas. From this perspective, this paper analyzes and describes patterns of migration careers for South African people in Pretoria, South Africa. Pretoria was chosen as the study area because, in contrast with American cities, it is a city with less freedom. Sampled subjects were taken from groups of upper-class Whites, lower-class Whites and non-Whites. As for migration frequencies and motivations, there are clear differences not only between Whites and non-Whites, but also between upper-class and lower-class Whites. Each group shows a distinctive pattern of trajectories of residential shifts within Pretoria. Whites are characterized by much higher mobility than non-Whites. Their motivations and spatial trajectories are influenced by (1) the political oppression of apartheid, (2) economical affordability, and (3) a strong ethnical sense of belonging to their own communities. Spatial trajectories of South African migration careers are different from American ones. Both Whites and non-Whites in South Africa shift their residences within urban areas defined by the racial segregation imposed by apartheid. Americans move according to their preference of a place to live. This difference is derived from different urban histories; people and their lives are also different between the two societies. It should be noted that there is a strong interaction between people's urban lifestyle and the urban spatial structure. Residential differentiation is an important theme in the analysis of urban structures. Studies of migration careers in urban space are expected to give answers to fundamental questions regarding residential differentiation.
This paper examines the living strategies of the indigenous rural-urban migrants in Sarawak, Malaysia, by observing their social, economic, and political activities. In the study area, Sibu town, the population of the Iban increased rapidly in the 1980s locating mainly in squatter areas. Although their organizing ability was not strong, they did conduct profitable negotiations with the administration for their housing condition in cooperation with other ethnic groups. Consequently, they acquired new housing lots in a resettlement scheme, which helped them establish more stable lives in the urban area. However, most of them, including those employed in the formal sector, still intend to return home after retirement and maintain their various rights to property in home villages. Some urban dwellers have a flexible interpretation of their custom to remain as a member of the original village. The strong tie with home village community, however, does not necessarily shackle the urban dwellers. Their choice of staying in a local town is the core of their living strategies, which enable them to continue circulating between urban and rural areas, and make careful preparations for their future life after retirement.
The purpose of this paper is to carefully examine the spatial pattern of human migration during the second half of the 1980s, by using geographical information system (GIS) and spatial interaction models (SIMs). It should be noted that this paper is based on the full data set of the inter-municipal migration extracted from the 1990 population census of Japan. This paper firstly uses GIS to provide the features of the Japanese migration system based on municipality units. As a result, the two major migration patterns in the late 1980s are observed; influx of population to the Keihin metropolitan area from non-metropolitan areas, and to prefectural capital cities from other cities of the same prefecture. Next, Fotheringham's competing destinations models are also applied to the inter-municipal migration flows. It is found that the spatial distribution of accessibility parameter estimates has a significantly contrastive pattern: the estimates of the origins in the non-metropolitan areas are positive and show the agglomeration effect in migration process, while the ones in the metropolitan areas are negative and show the competing effect. These results suggest that accessibility parameter estimates reflect not only the spatial configuration of origins and destinations, but also the preference of migrants for the large metropolitan areas reflecting the Japanese core-periphery structure and the business cycle in the boom period of the late 1980s.
Environmental change, particularly climatic change during the recent years, and its impact on rice production in Thailand and in Monsoon Asia were dealt with. First, it was pointed out that Thailand is situated roughly on the northeastern border of the area dominated by the SW monsoon in South Asia in the northern summer. On the other hand, it is located on the southwestern border of the prevailing NE monsoon in Southeast Asia in the northern winter. So Thailand is located in the most sensitive region for year-to-year change of the monsoons. Secondly, differences of precipitation and rice production between the El Nino years and the La Nina years in South Asia and Southeast Asia, including Thailand were dealt with. It is shown that a decrease in the El Nino years and, in contrast, an increase in the La Nina years is obvious. This is clearer in South Asia than in Southeast Asia, where there are some exceptional cases. Thirdly, examples in Northeast Thailand were presented. It is interesting to note that the differences of precipitation between 1992 (dry year) and 1994 (wet year) were negative, but the rice yield in the dry season was positive. This was considered to be a result of rapid technological development in the provinces of Northeast Thailand in the early 1990s, excepting the provinces of the surrounding mountainous or border region. Lastly, the concluding remarks took into consideration environmental problems on the global and Monsoon Asian scale as well as those in Thailand on a regional scale.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify economic activities and strategies of sogo shosha, that is, the nine largest Japanese general trading companies, in response to different markets, namely the United States and Canada, during the early 1990s. This was a crucial period, due to the commencement of the North American Free Trade Agreement and the bursting of the Japanese bubble economy. The paper focuses on the characteristics of Japanese trading and investment patterns during the period in question, with particular attention to the activities of sogo shosha, in order to understand their current economic activities in North America. The American sogo shosha emphasize both offshore trade and domestic trade in the United States. The Canadian sogo shosha largely depend on the bilateral trade between Canada and Japan. Sogo shosha investment in the United States was more market-orientated, while that in Canada was more resource-oriented. The paper also includes exploration of the locational and functional implications of branches of sogo shosha. By changing their organizational operations and with concomitant functional changes in branches, four sogo shosha in the United States have pursued the localizing business strategies, while their counterparts in Canada have remained closer to the trading prototype. The examination of the different trading and investment patterns of sogo shosha in the United States and Canada reveals that they have recognized the United States and Canada as two distinct markets. It also shows the economic environments of the host and home countries have affected the economic activities of sogo shosha in North America.
Spatial and temporal patterns of urbanization in Tokyo and Kanagawa were analyzed based on changes in administrative type from village to town to city to ward. Using a GIS, changes in these units between 1889 and 1995 were recorded from historical maps, half-decade censuses, and other sources. Many areas had sequential change (on a progression from village to town to city to ward), others had nonsequential change, skipping one or more steps, and some remain unchanged. There was an expanded core-city zone of nonsequential transition (from village or town directly to ward), an inland/coastal suburb zone of sequential transition (e. g., villages became a town, then towns became a suburban city), a foothills zone of nonsequential transition (e. g., villages and a town joined to become a city), and a mountaintowns zone of sequential transition (villages formed a town). These four zones form an alternating pattern of nonsequential, sequential, nonsequential, and sequential transition types. Areas adjacent to the core cities of Tokyo and Yokohama had nonsequential transitions, annexed as wards from villages or towns in the 1920s and 1930s. The next zone had gradual, sequential formation of mid-sized suburban cities, with most conversions to city occurring in the 1950s through 1970s. The third zone comprised satellite cities formed by nonsequential consolidation of villages and towns to form large mountain-edge cities, at various times during the century. The final zone had sequential change from mountain village to town. These urbanization transition zones reflect the differences in core, suburban, and satellite city growth patterns.