Seven small offset streams crossing strike-slip faults in central to south-western Japan, longitudinal profiles and channel course geometry of which were measured in the field, show no correlation between the amount of channel offset (offset length) and drainage area or channel length above the fault. The method to estimate fault slip rates from the relationship between offset length and channel length above the fault seems not valid for these offset streams. The angle of deflection, which is the angle between the fault line and the reach connecting reaches divided by fault displacement (offset reach), shows a negative correlation wi offset length for the streams of long offset, while no correlation is clear for the streams of short offset. When the channel offset is short and significant channel shift towards the steepest possible course does not occur yet, fault zone width probably controls the deflection angle. The negative correlation for the streams of long offset may reflect the easier channel shift of the streams with shorter offset among them. The deformation types of these offset streams are judged as Type A (offset slope of fault displacement is smaller than channel gradient) except for one as Type C with larger offset slope. Some configurations characteristic to the deformation types still remain in their longitudinal profiles with various degrees of fluvial adjustment. Offset streams seem to be in the repeated process of tectonic deformation and fluvial adjustment as long as the fault actity continues.
The purpose of this study is to illustrate the changing relationship between resource use patterns and state policies in the rural area of Beijing City from the viewpoint of political ecology in China's rapid economic growth. Since the reforms initiated in 1978, local government such as at village and township levels have enlarged the decision making power of agricultural production in accordance with the measures suited to local conditions in Beijing City. Policies of state and local government have lead to diversified resource use patterns on farmland in Beijing City. Local peasants also adapted to changing state policies by modifying the use pattern of regional resources. Relations between the state policies and the natural environment of Beijing City differ from other rural cases. The change of state policies has not damaged local natural environment, it has been somehow improved in the past twenty years. Thus different agricultural production policies were applied to each agricultural region, differentiating the crop production patterns.
Taiwan's banana industry developed during the period of Japanese occupation, and Taiwan bananas monopolized the Japanese market until banana importation was liberalized in 1963. This paper examines the development of Taiwan's banana-producing regions by highlighting the relationship between Taiwan bananas and the Japanese market and the change in bananaproducing regions of Taiwan following the end of World War II. Before Japan colonized Taiwan in 1895, bananas were a subsistence crop mainly in northern Taiwan. However, during the colonial period, a commercial banana-producing region was formed in central Taiwan around Jiji. After World War II, while the colonial banana network was maintained, the production center moved southward to Chishan town, where bananas are mainly grown for the Japanese market. Both banana-producing regions are now facing such problems as the aging of farmers, shortage of successors, crop diseases, and typhoon damage. Besides, a price competition war in the Japanese market forces Taiwan growers to raise their competitiveness. By joining WTO, further reorganization of banana-producing regions is expected in Taiwan.
The availability of data set itself and the method of handling the data set are essential factors to achieve effective decision making in retail marketing, especially for small privately managed retail stores. In the field of retail and marketing geography, attractiveness of a store is analyzed with questionnaire survey and logit model in general. However, the problem is that huge cost is required for the process, which becomes more difficult under a micro scale retail environment. Considering the fact that small retail stores often have their own purchase history data of customers, the cost is reduced if an effective method exists that is applicable using purchase history data only. Hence, the purpose of this paper is focused on evaluating and detecting competitors of a small retail store, with limited data availability, to understand the status of its market area from the geographical aspect by clarifying where its own strong competitors are located. The method uses a probabilistic store choice model, which is usually estimated from the data of consumers' store choice behavior collected by a questionnaire survey. Instead of such detailed but costly data, this paper uses actual sales data of the target store to estimate the model. The method is applied to simulated choice behavior, then, to actual data based on the findings understood from the simulated choice behavior analysis. Results show that the method effectively detects strong competitors of a store. Furthermore, the result may provide a guideline for the store to establish an effective marketing strategy.
In recent geographical studies of religion, essentialist and constructionist positions have coexisted, and dissension between them has grown. In addition, each approach contains inherent problems; essentialist geographers have tended to reify religion and religious spaces, and constructionist geographers have tended to insufficiently analyze how the religious spaces produced by social groups influence those groups. In this paper, I clarify trends of geographical studies of religion written by English-speaking and Japanese researchers and their problems based on such a dual perspective, and suggest a direction in order to improve them. First, I analyze theoretical trends in geographical studies of religion dividing between essentialism and constructionism, and make each problem clear. After that, I review some approaches which seek other positions in geographical studies of religion paying attention to mutual relationship between structure and agency or spaces and individuals. Finally, I suggest the way to bridge the gap between essentialist and constructionist and to improve their problems. It is, in short, exploration of both mutual relationships between spaces and social groups concerning religion, and their geographical characteristics.