“Ramen” is now different from Chinese noodles originated in mainland China and develop itself into a Japanese food with diversity. On the other hand, back in 1980s, Japanese Ramen had little diversity – basically on the premise of Chinese elaboration - than that of today. Then 1990s showed a gradual change on it when a concept of “Wa” (=Japanese spirit of harmony) was brought into Ramen with more recreational value of food and in that process, it became something emphasizes “Japanese tradition” instead of Chinese elaboration.
Here we take a look at this “Ramen transition” in Japan from a viewpoint of both “Chuka” (=Chinese) and “Wa”images with time series analysis.
This study explores what are the problems of “Religious Pluralism” of John Hick (1922-2012). First by representing the intellectual situations in which the idea of “Religious Pluralism” was presented to the theological world, and then by surveying the arguments about the “three categories” which define what Christianity as a religion considers itself to be, the author examines theoretical difficulties in Hick’s doctrine about “Religious Pluralism” in connection with the Christian idea of salvation.
The ethical theories of R. M. Hare are divided into early and later stages. In the early stage, more concretely, in his The Language of Morals (1952), he pointed out properties of prescriptivity and universalizability which moral terms such as ‘good’, ‘right’, and ‘ought’ had. According to him, moral terms, especially ‘ought’, have prescriptive meaning as commands or imperatives, and such prescription can be universalized. In Part 2 of his book, Hare pointed that the primary meaning of ‘good’ was commendation. In this paper, I consider Hare’s analysis of ‘good’. First, I outline his analysis of moral terms (§1, §2, §3).Next, I explore the consideration of ‘good’ given by P. T. Geach and J. L. Mackie, by which it turns out that Hare’s analysis of ‘good’ should be actually considered in level of illocutionary acts that was introduced by J. L. Austin in his How to Do Things with Words (1955) (§4 and §5). Finally, I give the new analysis of other several uses of ‘good’ from the point of view of the speaker’s intention (§6).
Why do a definite number of starting young nurses retire soon after finding new posts? This paper tries to find out the reasons by focusing on psychological processes by which they leave in less than a year after they are employed. Analysis of documents concerned reveals: they find their working environments different from what they have expected them to be; skills they have acquired at nursing schools/colleges prove insufficient for their expected jobs; they find it difficult to get along well with senior members; their mind and body do not fit in well; they lose interest in work of nursing itself. These reasons account for the difficulty of securing sufficient numbers of nurses, while they are common to other young people of the same generation working in other fields.