Based on the framework of four fields in knowledge creation, three government financialinstitutions have been investigated.At the Development Assistance Fund of Viet Nam, only exercising field has been developed.Knowledge utilization is limited to the realm of explicit knowledge.At the Development and Infrastructure Bank of Malaysia, merely systemizing field andexercising field have been developed. Knowledge utilization is also limited to the realm of explicitknowledge.At the Development Bank of Japan, originating field and dialoguing field, as well assystemizing field and exercising field, have been developed. Both explicit knowledge and implicitknowledge are utilized for knowledge creation.There are two types of collective learning loop. Shallow loop ends only within explicitknowledge. Deep loop circulates into implicit knowledge, too. Utilization of implicit knowledge makessuch difference.Collective learning, based on the utilization of organizational knowledge, helps forecastchanges in circumstances, thereby enabling agile actions toward self-transformation.
Modularity is a technique to separate the inner structures and the interface among them by setting uparchitecture in the relationships among modules that are the constitutional units of a machine. Interfacestipulates in detail how modules interact, how they are placed (or connected), and how they exchangeinformation. By disclosing the interface the supplier can maintain specialty and differentiation and hencethe supplier can take an advantage over the users since the users must rely on them. The source of acomplex system is the complex interactions among many parts. Knowledge about a system is a complexknowledge system that involves subsystem selection to be combined and the logic that works behind thesystem, which is an implicit knowledge that is difficult to formalize and transfer. The knowledge systemis indispensible for product development projects. Modularity is considers to be inadequate forautomobiles, which need the integrity of whole product, however, modularity of core parts such ashybrid systems has been under way in Japanese companies.
This paper discusses about the global strategies of the multinational corporations of which headoffices are located in the U.S.A., Europe, and Japan. In recent tire industry, a few manufacturers hold alarge part of the global market and the worldwide competition is keen in this business. The aim of thispaper is to compare the global strategies practically by following the history of the management of therepresentative tire manufacturers in the world. And applying the framework of Bartlett, C. and S.Ghoshal, this paper intends to unveil the features and effective measures of their global strategies.
The profit structure of Japanese iron and steel industry ought to be sustainable, not temporary one.The industry should not expect the demand exceeded the supply of steel, nor depend on specialprocurements, but it is necessary to accelerate thoroughness of rationalization of the industry itself andstructural reform.Amid ongoing globalization of the markets, both in production and consumption, competitions in theindustry extends not only domestic but also all over the world. In this regard, the importance and thevalidity of "reorganization" are shared concerns among the industry.This paper examines about the measures for "reorganization" of Japanese iron and steel industry.
A term "EAP(Employee Assistance Program) " has been considerably perceived by Japanesecompanies in recent years. Most of the companies may see EAP as a tool for caring the mental healthof employees, but EAP, in essence, is a very important part of business strategy. The introduction ofEAP would fulfill a crucial role of promoting the human capital management, such as productivityimprovement, prevention of talent drain, and enhancement of recruitment. It is highly desirable thatEAP would come into wide use as a part of business strategy in Japanese companies.
Japanese Internet banks are generally believed to be a low profit business model. The main Internetbanking strategies for the Japanese brick-and-mortar banks are just leading segmented low profitmass customers to use Internet banking, instead of branch channels. This paper examines theimportant meaning of the newly established Japanese Internet banks and also suggests the strategicdirection of Internet banking for the Japanese banking industry. Japanese customers, includingcorporate customers, will look for more sophisticated Internet banking channels.