In this essay the writer traces the historical process of the making and carrying out of policies concerning environmental protection by the Chinese government since 1980s. While making great progress in national economy, China has made efforts in the field of environmental protection for the last three decades: it has spent a large amount of money to save energy and reduce pollution. However, back in 1980s the need for economic growth came first, so the issue of environmental conservation was outweighed. Although the government came to realize the necessity of tackling the environmental problem in the 1990s, it failed to make effective, practicable and lasting policies on the matter. In the 21st century, the government has to change the situation. Confronted with the whole issues of environmentalism, the first thing that the government has to do is to modify the “Economic Development First” principle and work out the best fit between economic development and environmental protection.
This article surveys the concept of framing in political consciousness research, and examines its logical implications and theoretical validity as a leading principle of researches. The psychological principles which determine the perception of decision-making problems and the evaluation of probable results which come out of the decisions will bring about remarkable shifts of preference when the same issues are framed in different manners. And this new shift will be easily anticipated and predicted so far as a paradigm change of framing is concerned. In consequence of the consideration, a new framework will be presented as a guiding principle of researches.
In this paper the writer will demonstrate that video-recorded opera works are great use to develop an ability to understand other peoples, their countries and cultures. Here in Japan, few cities have an opera house; few people can enjoy operas as they are actually performed before their eyes just in the town they live in and exactly at the time they have an opportunity. Yet the development of IT as well as audio-visual technology has allowed opera to attract an increasing number of persons. With a lot of performances recorded on video/disk and DVDs, more and more works have reached to an ever wider audience. They can also gain access to the contents of the plays by means of subscriptions. What is more, video-recorded operas are a great help in teaching people Western history. In many operas, heroes and heroines of Greek mythology and statesmen and generals of Roman Empire appear on the stage. While enjoying operas people can learn a lot about the historical situations and cultures not only of the ancient world but of the modern European countries where the works were written.
In many cases, what a private person or persons, a group or groups, whether known or not, express on the computer network can be defamating others or regarded as defamation. The Internet is a useful tool for expressing ourselves. However, the ability to express ideas anytime, anywhere on the Internet creates a risk of defamation by others, and such defamating and illegal acts could easily be expanded and reproduced by copying them. The resulting amount of damage caused can easily become much greater than before the use of the Internet was common in society. By analyzing decisions of courts of justice on defamation on the computer network, this article examines the responsibility of those who express themselves on the Internet and of the Internet service providers respectively. It also examines the significance of the Japanese Act on the Limitation of Liability for Damages of Specified Telecommunications Service Providers and the Right to Demand Disclosure of Identification Information of the Senders．