Average age of residents living in National sanatorium Hoshizuka-Keiaien where people have past history of Hansen disease is around 80 years old at present, and many of them spend their whole days in watching TV or sleeping almost alone in their rooms. Therefore music therapy was introduced in order to improve their daily activities in our sanatorium. Singing, listening to music, playing the musical instruments, and dancing were performed, either in a group or individually. Reactivation of their brain function such as recollection, sense of unity and relaxation were expected. Improvement of cardiopulmonary function was also expected. Solidarity and relaxed state were observed by being with the other participants in the group therapy. For example, when using musical instruments, some participants with hesitation tried to use their instruments, and had good performance. They seemed to be satisfied and became confident with the musical instruments. Then their confidence and satisfaction activated the group. After the sessions, mutual conversation increased. These processes obtained a synergy effect, which means that a group affects of individuals at first and next alteration of individual behavior influences the group. We could observe a better effect in their motivation and activity in their daily life in the individual therapy. The music therapy was applied to the senior participants by the music therapist in this study. The participants could easily reinforce their mind and body through this therapy. Music therapy will be continued for the improvement of quality of life of residents in the sanatorium.
Nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) during infection plays a crucial role
in host defense mechanisms, via its antimicrobial and cytoprotective activities. Infection of Salmonella
typhimurium in mice induces excessive production of NO, as a host defense response. We found much
greater bacterial growth and apoptotic changes in iNOS-deficient (iNOS-/-) mice than in wild-type mice.
However, the mechanism of NO-mediated cytoprotection during Salmonella infection remained unclear.
An important signaling mechanism induced by NO is heme oxygenase (HO)-1, a significant cytoprotective
molecule produced by oxidative stress. Thus, we sought to clarify NO-dependent cytoprotective and
antimicrobial host defense, with a particular focus on the signaling mechanism of HO-1 induction.
We recently discovered a nitrated cyclic nucleotide, 8-nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
(8-nitro-cGMP), which is formed via NO possibly with reactive oxygen species. We observed strong
immunoreactivity for 8-nitro-cGMP in Salmonella -infected wild-type mouse liver and peritoneal
macrophages in culture but not in iNOS-/- mouse liver and macrophages. Moreover, a higher apoptosis was
observed in iNOS-/- macrophages compared with wild-type macrophages after Salmonella infection, but the
difference was nullified when iNOS-/- cells were treated with 8-nitro-cGMP. Finally, authentic 8-nitro-cGMP
induced HO-1 in cultured macrophages infected with Salmonella . The signaling function of 8-nitro-cGMP
appears to be mediated by its unique reaction with the sulfhydryl group of cysteine, thus forming a protein-
S-cGMP adduct, which is an important mechanism of post-translational modification of proteins called
protein S-guanylation. More importantly, we found 8-nitro-cGMP-dependent S-guanylation of Keap1, a
regulatory protein of transcription factor Nrf2, which regulates the transcription of HO-1. In this review, we
focus on a unique mechanism of NO-mediated host defense via formation of a novel signaling molecule,
8-nitro-cGMP in microbial infections.
Minamata disease (MD) was first recognized in May 1956. Its first recognized victims were 3 and 5 years old children. Environmental contamination most rapidly and seriously affected the physiologically and socially weak among the residents. Methylmercury (MeHg) had accumulated in fishes and shellfishes and those who ate them had been poisoning with it.MD is an indirect poisoning by MeHg through the food chain as a result of environmental contamination, and is the first known disease to cause abnormalities in the fetus due to a toxic substances passing through the placenta. In 1962 MeHg poisoning through the placenta was found for the first time in the world. It used to be considered that poisoning was caused by direct exposure to a toxic substance, and that toxic substances did not pass the placenta. MD had implications in various fields. Namely it also stirred up legal, ethical, and eugenic arguments concerning fetal protection. Also man thought about a man's worth.
世界保健機関(WHO) は2008 年３月６～７日にエジプトのカイロで、第９回ハンセン病制圧のための技術勧告会議（Ninth Meeting of the WHO Technical Advisory Group on Leprosy Control）を開催し、その内容が報告書としてまとめられ、WHO 南東アジア局から出版された。会議では、世界のハンセン病の状況が報告されるとともに、今後のハンセン病制圧活動の課題が討議されている。