This paper focused on the acquisition rate of the Karen's cloth making procedure body technique and conducted analyses. Contents of analyses and their results are as follows: (1) Mean values of acquisition rate of cloth making procedure body techniques by age cohorts (10-19, 20-29, 30 and over) were calculated. The result indicates that the acquisition order or time of cloth making procedure body techniques depends on the complexity and difficulty of each body technique. Namely, it implies that the acquisition time of body technique and age (developmental stage) might be highly related and the procedure of cloth making procedure should not affect the acquisition order. (2) The correlation analyses between the acquisition rate and the age category (10-19, 20-29, 30 and over) were conducted. The result reveals that the level of Karen's cloth making procedure techniques develop as they get older.
The purpose of this research was to examine the period that required to improvement the lifestyle by using the HQC technique. Subjects of this research were 160 children who went to the school located in Ubon-ratchathani prefecture in Thailand. The lifestyle improvement using HQC check sheet was practiced for about three months. The change in the ratio of a good lifestyle was examined by χ2-test. 20 items were analyzed, and 12 items were improved significantly. Three items were improved significantly from 3 weeks later and six items were improved significantly from 4 weeks later. From these results, it was suggested that practice for 3-4 weeks or more be effective in the lifestyle improvement that used the HQC technique.
In this study, we examined the relationship between birth-month distribution, skeletal age, height, and weight in adolescent soccer players. The participants were 271 well-trained male adolescent soccer players aged between 9.1 to 15.9 years (N=101 for U12, N=132 for U15, and N=38 for U18). They were divided into four groups according to their month of birth (Q1: Apr-Jun, Q2: Jul-Sep, Q3: Oct-Dec, and Q4: Jan-Mar). Then, the number of players in each group was compared with the standard population of children in Tokyo. Our result showed significant asymmetries in the birth-month distribution for participants of all age groups (p<0.001); it was less than 10% for participants belonging to group Q4. However, no significant difference in maturation ratio (skeletal age-chronological age) was seen among the groups. Moreover, skeletal age did not differ significantly among birth-month for all groups except for Q3. These tendencies were also seen in height and weight distributions. These findings imply that players who biologically mature at an early stage may be selected systematically as soccer players at competitive levels; however, biases based on maturation and physique may cause asymmetric birth-month distribution, as seen in this study.
Objective: Decline of sports ability in Japanese children is a recent problem. It has also been pointed out that the development of Japanese children's frontal lobe function had recently been delayed. Several factors including playing experiences are suspected to be involved to these phenomena. This study attempted to clarify the relationships among sports and playing-experiences, sports ability and frontal lobe function in Japanese kindergarten children. Method: A total of 171 upper-grade kindergarteners of three kindergartens in K city, Kagoshima prefecture, were investigated by questionnaires to their parent in April, 2006. Tests of frontal lobe function (GO/NO-GO task and SCG: shape choice game test), sports test (including 8 items), and evaluation for ADHD (attention deficit and hyper activity) tendency by the class-teachers were also administered in April, July and November, 2006. Results: Frontal lobe functions and sports ability tended to correlate positively with outdoor body using play experiences, and negatively with indoor personal play experiences. Relationships between several sports test items and frontal lobe functions or ADHD tendency were observed in cross-sectional analyses. Higher frontal lobe function was correlated with strong hand grip, high upper body lift, longer one-foot balance with opened eyes. In the longitudinal analyses, most test performances in both of frontal lobe function and sports ability had improved seven months later. Improvement of frontal lobe function was correlated with improvement of upper body lift, standing broad jump. Improvement of hand grip was larger in the two kindergartens where intervention with traditional hand using play was administered.
The health problem caused from underexercise is remarkable for mental disabilities children. There are some troublesome to recomend exercise and some of them dislike exercise. In this study, it was intended to promote exercise to mental disabilities children using the cognitive movement training machine which were developed by Dr. Kobayashi. Five boys (IQ: under20: 1boy, 20-35: 3boys, 50-70: 1boy) participated to the training program (1day/week, 2hours/time). Training was continued for 18months. After training, remarkable improvement was observed on the skill of exercise. Body fat was decreased and muscle mass of whole body was increased. Some improvement were observed on 50m run time, back strength, hand grip strength, body flexibility of sitting position. Improvement of behavior in daily living and will for things were recognized from a questionnaire to the protector. It was found that the cognitive movement training is effective to promote not only physical health but also psychological for mental disabilities children with pleasure and voluntarily.
This study aims to clarify a causal structure model of lifestyle, physical condition, and learning behavior with a census survey targeted at elementary school children in Tatebayashi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan. We administered a questionnaire survey to all elementary school children (4, 683 pupils) in Tatebayashi City (about 80, 000 population), Gunma. The survey was made up of items on lifestyle (waking time, bedtime, breakfast, defecation, exercise, television, games, study, reading and bathing). The items were classified into 3 to 5 item response categories and measured using an ordinal scale. We performed factor analysis to typify lifestyle, and used a structural equation model that assumed a causal structure, to consider the relationship between factors. In the factor analysis method applied to 10 items on lifestyle, four factors of physical condition (exercise, defecation, learning behavior (study, reading), desirable lifestyle (waking time, having breakfast, bathing), and undesirable lifestyle (bedtime, television, games) were interpreted. When analyzing the result from the causal structure model in which the influence of two lifestyle factors on factors of basis for life, physical condition and learning behavior were set, we found a model that showed high compatibility with GFI and AGFI with more than 0.97. Desirable lifestyle was significantly involved in basis for life (0.71). On the other hand, undesirable lifestyle was insignificantly involved in basis for life (0.16). The basis for life was insignificantly involved in learning behavior (0.19) and moderately in physical condition (0.48). The relationship between desirable lifestyle and undesirable lifestyle was high (0.76). This study found that the basis for life in elementary school children is formed centering on a desirable lifestyle and has a good effect on their physical condition. However, a desirable lifestyle and basis for life are insignificantly involved in learning behavior, and it can be assumed that guidance in school has much weight.
The purpose of this study was to make clear the characteristics of physical fitness and life-style of boys and girls in the most superior and inferior groups on physical fitness level. About 29, 000 boys and girls were measured their physical fitness and motor performances, body height and body weight and were also estimated the levels of physical activities, frequency of breakfast intake, sleeping hours and watching TV hours. The physical fitness and motor performances of the most superior group, as the results, showed higher values of 40-70% in boys and 60-85% in girls than those of the inferior group. BMIs in the both groups at junior high school period showed similar values each other and were higher than that of the average fitness group. These results suggest that it must pay attention to estimate a development of body composition by BMI. The most inferior group was also characterized with low physical activity levels and irregular breakfast intake and sleeping hours in their life-style.
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the results from the three-year practices on physical fitness improvement for elementary school children. The practice was held among approximately 700 elementary school children, the first through sixth graders from 4 schools, in Isumi-shi of Chiba prefecture. In order to verify the effectiveness of this research, 8 different physical fitness tests and 16 life-style related questionnaires were made 5 times, and the primary results were as indicated below. (1) Based on a chain result of three-years, held among the first through forth graders, the children' physical fitness tests points were improved upwards regardless of their age and sex, on the other hand, the coefficient of variation decreased greatly. (2) Comparing the children' physical fitness tested twice among the third through sixth graders, once held in July, 2004 and the other held in June, 2006, the data showed that Rank A occupied 19.7% as of July, 2004 and 46.3% as of June, 2006. As for Rank E, it showed 7.5% and 2.3%. Moreover, a significant difference was witnessed through all these results (p<.05). (3) Comparing the lifestyle among the same group of students above, in July, 2004 and in December, 2006, a significant difference was witnessed in up to 14 items, such as physical activity duration, taking breakfast, TV viewing time, pleasure of school life, motivations in daily life (p<.05). In conclusion, the physical fitness of the children showed remarkable improvement, and it seemed that their life-style has made into a great transition.