The purpose of this study was to examine factors related in past sports experiences before adulthood for developing exercise habits during adulthood. The participants were eighty adults aged 44-79(24 men:67.6±6.2 yr, 51 women:59.2±8.2 yr, and 5 unknown:69.7±4.5 yr). All participants belonged to a community club with sports and culture classes. Survey items included past sports experiences, current exercise habits, and enjoyment of exercise. Influences of past sports experiences to current exercise habits were examined using a multiple indicator model in structural equation modeling. Results for a causal structure model of past sports experiences and current exercise habits indicated a good fit to the data(CFI=0.998, RMSEA=0.030). The path coefficient was 0.34(standardized solution:past sports experiences→current exercise habits). However the path coefficient of past sports experiences→current exercise habits in the model which added enjoyment of exercise indicated a low value(-0.08, ns). Meanwhile, the path coefficient of past sports experiences→enjoyment of exercise and enjoyment of exercise→current exercise habits were 0.56 and 0.62, respectively. In addition, there was a no significant difference in physical activity level between numbers of sports experiences. These findings suggest that past sports experiences before adulthood had directly a stronger effect on enjoyment of exercise than on exercise habit, and that enjoyment of exercise had directly a strong effect on exercise habit.
The purpose of this study was to examine the present conditions and a change with the growth of the healthy behavior of Myanmar children. The subject was 5,115 Myanmar children(Grade 3-Grade 11). We investigated the healthy life behavior that consisted of four domains. We applied item response theory and examined a change of the healthy behavior with the growth and development using calculated ability value θ. The healthy behavior showed various change every domain. We got four suggestions for health education of children by considering change of whole healthy behavior and each domain.
The purpose of this study to examine the difference in physical fitness levels among young children from the age of three until the age of five. The study analyzed data obtained through a pursuit measurement of the same subjects conducted for a period of three years. The subjects were 206 young children(104 boys and 102 girls)with standard physiques. We administered physical tests comprising seven types of exercises to understand their physical fitness characteristics;the tests were conducted every year in November for three years. Finally, the subjects were divided into the upper-ranking group(20%)and the lower-ranking group(20%)on the basis of the results of the physical tests at three-years old that corrected the age;further, the extent to which the difference between the two groups changed after two years was examined for each type of exercise. To conduct a statistical analysis of the data, a two-way ANOVA and the multiple comparisons(Tukey's HSD test)were employed. The analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups for all types of exercises(in the case of both boys and girls). The gap reduced with each passing year for the side-step, 25-m run, and sitting trunk flexion. The exercise types for which the gap reduced until the age of four were grip strength and standing long jump. In the case of softball throw and upright hand standing time, the gap reduced until the age of four and then increased at the age of five. However, the gap did not reverse at the age of five for any exercise type. The level of physical fitness at the age of five remains strongly influenced by that at the age of three. The results suggested that the gap in the physical fitness among Japanese pupils has already begun to be observed in young children.
This paper investigated the following three points with respect to“Human Scale Method"which are currently used by Sgaw Karen inhabited in mountainous region of Southeast Asia's mainland. 1.Sorts, names and definitions of“Human Scale Method"which are currently used 2.Application of“Human Scale Method" 3.Usage survey of“Human Scale Method"by gender and age The Surveyed field was P village, Doisakhet district of Chiangmai province in Thailand. Informants were sought under the condition that eligible informants are people who currently use“Human Scale Method". As a result, number of male informants was 40 and that of female was 25. Ages of male informants ranged from 17 to 74 and those of female from 17 to 78. Survey period was from August to December of 2008. Interviews were conducted using Northern-Thai and Karen languages. As results of the survey, the following five points are summarized. 1.Male's usage ages of“Human Scale Method"ranges from 17 to 74 and female's from 17 to 78 years of age. People under than 17 years of age do not use“Human Scale Method". 2.The objects of body parts for scaling are concentrated in hand, forearm, upper-arm and chest. Other parts are never utilized for measuring. 3.The sorts and appellations of Karen's human scale are detailed, and defined. The number of“Human Scale Method"amounts to 39. 4.A unit system for every“Human Scale Method"is examined and defined. 5.All confirmed thirty nine kinds of“Human Scale Method"are used by males but females use only eleven kinds of them. 6.“Human Scale Method"are mainly used for production of commodities and furniture materials. The main usage explains the difference in gender. Namely, production of commodities and furniture materials are basically done by males. This paper elucidates that the usage rate of“Human Scale Method"in Karen people is subject to gender and age.
The purpose of this study was to make clear the influence to salivary melatonin metabolism of children by a long-term camp(31 days and 30 nights). Six healthy subjects(10-11 years old)were participated in the present study which was carried out from July to September, 2007. The saliva was collected three times(6:30 pm:early-evening, 9:30 pm:night, 6:00 am:morning)in five periods(9th-10th days before camp, 2nd-3rd days in camp, 15th-16th days in camp, 29th-30th days in camp, 31st-32nd days after camp). As the result of this study, it was observed that salivary melatonin metabolism of subjects were significantly regulated by a long-term camp. However, one month after the camp, its rhythm was disordered to an average before the camp. From these facts, we reached a conclusion that the building a non-daily living such as camp into a daily living of children was a future practice work.
Few reports have been examined the correlation between body composition and physical fitness during adolescence, especially, in South Korea. In the present study, the relational construction among physique, body composition and physical fitness is auxologically confirmed in South Korean junior high school students. The sample size consists of 416 South Korean junior high school students aged 13 years(boys:232;girls:184). Height, weight, body mass index(BMI), body fat mass, body fat percentage, and soft lean mass(SLM)were measured along with physical fitness tests(sit & reach, 20 m-shuttle run, push-ups and sit-ups). In the correlation analysis between height and physical fitness, a positive correlation was shown only for the relationship between height and the 20 m-shuttle run in boys. Multiple correlation analysis between physique and physical fitness showed a positive correlation in all items except sit & reach in boys. A negative correlation was shown for the relationship between both the 20 m-shuttle run and sit-ups and body fat mass, body fat percentage and BMI, respectively, in both boys and girls. Moreover, significant differences were seen in physical fitness between the“slim type,"“normal type"and“fatty type"classified by BMI. Next, a regression polynomial evaluation chart of fat percentage for BMI was constructed in order to verify physical fitness by the difference of morphological quality. Physical fitness was examined based on difference in the degree of qualitative accumulation of fat(excessive development of fat, normal fat, excessive underdevelopment of fat)derived from the evaluation chart. Students with excessive development of fat had significantly poorer and those with excessive underdevelopment of fat had significantly better endurance ability in the normal and fatty type. There was a difference in physical fitness based on the difference in the degree of qualitative accumulation of fat. However, the difference between the degree of qualitative accumulation of fat and physical fitness in the slim type was not significant. This suggests that fat was a negative factor for endurance ability and that degree of qualitative accumulation of fat had less influence on physical fitness in the slim type based on the fatty-slim level determined by BMI.
This study was designed to examine the effect of gross motor activity on the social skill acquisition in the children diagnosed as autism, the pervasive developmental disabilities, and the Asperger syndrome. It is especially difficult for children in this study to observe the rules, and to feel surrounding circumstances, and play with others jointly. In gross motor activity, a lot of interpersonal behaviors could be seen, and they came to recognize the rules and cooperate with others. Moreover, to the parent, it was a good chance for recognizing their child's behavior problem objectively. From these results, the gross motor activity is effective for the development of social skills.