Questionnaire surveys have used to investigate many problems. When a questionnaire is prepared, it is necessary to consider the attribute, bias, and, size of the sample. However, the actual preparation faces a lot of restrictions. For instance, the time for preliminary research, excluding the investigation periods, is limited, and thus enlarging the sample size to make the test statistically significant is not easy. The above-mentioned limitation is a real problem, and while preparing the questionnaire similar problems can be encountered. In this research, we prepared a questionnaire with items concerning lifestyle that were related to the growth and development area verified the differences in responses based on the difference in the context and order and whether the question are open ended or closed ended. A total of 1366 subjects participated in the online survey. Two almost uniform groups were made based on the attributes of age and sex, and questionnaires with the same question in different order were distributed to each group. The result showed an effect of the context and order even though it was a questionnaire concerning the lifestyle. In addition, the order effect was observed and a different reaction in the item in not any primary effect and new intrinsic deflection but the middle was observed to characterized, and to be seen. The results suggest that it is preferable to conduct preliminary research with two or more questionnaire with same question in different order in any questionnaire survey.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle thickness of Knee Extensors (KE) and Plantar Flexors (PF) with growth. Subjects were 48 males and divided into the three groups : junior high school students (12-15 years, N=13 ; JHS), high school students (15-18 years, N=15 ; HS) and adults (18-36 years, N=20 ; AD). The muscle thickness (relative to (body weight) 1/3) of KE (medial, center, and lateral) and PF (medial and lateral) was measured by B-mode ultrasound. The medial part of KE for AD was significantly greater than that for JHS, and the lateral part of KE for AD was significantly greater than that of JHS and HS. Although the lateral part of PF did not show significant difference among the three groups, the surface part of PF (medial gastrocnemius muscle) for AD was significantly greater than that for JHS and HS. These results indicated that the effect of growth on the muscle thickness was different among the synergist muscles. Especially, the lateral part of KE (i.e., vastus lateralis muscle) and surface part of PF (i.e., medial gastrocnemius muscle) would predominantly develop after the age of puberty.
The purpose of this study was to consider how mother was concerned with the children's play. In this study the author investigated on the mother's attitude to children's play, and then examined its relation to mother's attribute (operation, number of children, stress, exercise). As a result, four factors were identified, namely 1) cooperation, 2) dependency, 3) independency and 4) relation to the child. And the factor of cooperation influencing upon children's play was significantly correlated with number of children, stress and exercise. In a sense, mother of having plural children, with taking regular exercise, no stress, brings up the consciousness of cooperation by herself through the experience of daily life, and also comes to realize the value of play for children. Such recognition will proceed to maintain the change of children's play. Also, the number of children and years were interacted in the factor of dependency. The factor of dependency for mother of having a child was essentially characteristic, therefore, it is necessary for us sufficiently to investigate it.