The scarcity of published data regarding whether metabolic syndrome (MS) is involved in development of arteriosclerosis in children led us conduct the present study. To examine the relationship between MS and early arteriosclerosis risk in childhood, we compared percent body fat (%BF), visceral fat area (VFA), small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) among obese children with MS, obese and non-obese children without MS. The subjects were 76 Japanese children (41 obese, 35 non-obese) aged 7.0-12.6 years. Obesity was determined upon an obesity index of more than+20%. Obese children were grouped into with (n=5) and without (n=30) MS (abdominal obesity plus at least two other factors from hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, hypertension, and high fasting glucose). Obese children with MS had significantly higher %BF, as evaluated with air-displacement plethysmography, and VFA, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging, than obese and non-obese children without MS (p<0.05). VFA was strongly associated with %BF (r=0.709, p<0.05) and obesity index (r=0.742, p<0.05). Obese children with MS had significantly smaller LDL size and higher hsCRP, which is known to be novel markers characterizing the atherosclerotic process at an early stage, than other groups. Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome more than obesity per se may have large total and visceral fat mass, and be involved in early arteriosclerosis risk in children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the standardization of height growth curves of 8 ethnic groups in Thailand and Union of Myanmar. The height of 16,000 children from 5 to 18 years old of 8 ethnic groups, i. e., Thai, Karen, Hmong, Lisu, Akha, and Lahu in Thailand, Burmese and Mon in Myanmar, was measured from 1994 to 2004 in Thailand, from 2005 to 2008 in the Myanmar. Modified BTT model was applied to height growth curve, and the fluctuation of standard deviation was smoothed using weighted moving variation and smoothing function developed by the authors. Finally growth charts were obtained using z-score of normal distribution. Resultant growth charts were generally satisfactory and were seemed to be useful from the perspective of data utilization. Though there are a few problems on the growth charts such as variance was decreased for more than 15 years old, or height growth has continued till 18 years old in some ethnic groups. Representing heights were different more than 10 cm among ethnic groups at 18 years of age. It was confirmed that it is important to create a growth chart by ethnic group respectively and utilize it in order to evaluate properly the growth status and the nutritional condition of the children.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a change in life habits on a change in physical fitness in Japanese children using 3-year longitudinal data. The participants were 456 Japanese children aged 6-9 (230 boys, and 226 girls). Data were collected on 3 occasions over a one year period. Survey items included life habits (exercise habits, eating habit, sleeping habit, and TV/video game viewing habit), physical fitness (Japan Fitness Test : Grip Strength, Sit-ups, Sit & Reach, Side Steps, 20 m Shuttle Running, 50 m Dash, Standing Long Jump, and Handball Throwing). Physical fitness in participants was graded into five categories (A-E) according to norm-referenced criteria. Participants of lower two categories (D and E) of physical fitness level was defined as a lower level group. A latent growth modeling was used to examine the influence of the change in a life habit score to a change in a physical fitness score. With the physical fitness change factor, there were statistically significant and positive direct effects from the change in eating habits (slope) only in the lower level group. There were also significant effects from the initial levels of the eating habits, the exercise habits in the all data, and all life habits except for TV/video game viewing habit in the lower level group. These findings, with limited samples and a statistical method, might suggest that an improvement of eating habits has an effect on improvement of physical fitness in a lower level group of physical fitness, and initial levels of life habits also affects improvement of physical fitness.
This study was designed to clear the correlation of language knowledge, amount of activities and perceptive recognition relating to understanding of bodily movement in infancy, and obtain suggestion about “exercise guiding method” in order for infants to enjoy obtaining bodily movement voluntarily. We targeted about 108 infants of four and five years old who were members of two day-care centers in Narashino City, Chiba-pref. For survey content, we performed control-factor analysis of language knowledge, amount of activities, time consciousness, space consciousness and body consciousness relating to understanding of bodily movement in infancy of the target area. As a result, we could obtain strong relation as body consciousness of β0.544 for significant value of subgroup for amount of activities making dependent variable as knowledge of bodily movement and language, and obtain strong relation each other as β0.601 for knowledge of bodily movement and language in the light of dependent variable body consciousness. We could obtain semi-strong relation as β0.295 from four years infants making dependent variable as amount of activities and obtain mutual relation as β0.231 in case knowledge of bodily movement and language was made as dependent variable. We could obtain semi-strong relation as β0.372 for subgroup for amount of activities making dependent variable as time consciousness and obtain strong relation as β0.631 each other in case of subgroup of space consciousness making knowledge of bodily movement and language as dependent variable. From the standpoint of correlation, we had an image that time consciousness, amount of activities and body consciousness were connecting with each other strongly and interacting centering on knowledge of bodily movement and language.
[Purpose] We examined the appropriate physical fitness level related to lifestyle and motor ability for kindergarten children. [Method] The subjects were 152 kindergarten children. The measurement items were physical activity (7 days) which was measured by pedometer, a fitness test (9 items), and a lifestyle questionnaire. [Results] The weekday average walking steps were 11,482±4,065 steps in a day (Boys : 12,354±4,308, Girls : 10,742±3,693), and half of the daily steps were counted during kindergarten activities in a day. The kindergarten children who have good lifestyles walked 12,531−13,558 steps in a day. The motor ability of the kindergarten children who had taken more than 13,000 steps daily was significantly better than that of other children. However, we should pay attention to the difference of the average steps of each school year because the result of the analysis of covariance for school year was not significant. The motor ability of the kindergarten children who had taken more than 6,500 steps after kindergarten activity was also significantly better. [Discussion] The results suggested that more than 13,000 steps daily, and more than 6,500 steps taken after kindergarten activity, constitute an appropriate level of physical activity for kindergarten children.
In this study, it was intended to promote exercise to mental disabilities children using the cognitive movement training machine which were developed by Dr. Kobayashi. Four boys (IQ : under 20 : 1 boy, 20-35 : 3 boys) participated to the training program (1 day/week, 2 hours/time). Training was continued for 3 years. After training, remarkable improvement was observed on the skill of exercise. Body fat was decreased and muscle mass of whole body was increased. Some improvement were observed on 50 m run time, back strength, hand grip strength. Improvement of behavior in daily living and ability for physical movement were recognized from a questionnaire to the protector. The state of the physical, mental and social side was improved. It was considered that this training could be superior in safety/pleasure/continuity/effects of exercise for mental disabilities children.